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William R Stewart, 


On Thursday and Friday Evenings, February 30 and 4TH 







From January 24TH until date of sale, inclusive 






[all rights reserved] 


A Few Notes on the Works of Fortuny Included in 
the Collection of the late W* H» Stewart 

In 1869, when Fortuny went to Paris, he took with him two half-completed 
works — " La Vicaria " and " Le Choix du Modele." 

"La Vicaria," which was the more advanced of the two, was finished first, 
and achieved so great a success that it was sold for a sum which no modern painting 
had ever brought, up to that time. 

Some years ago Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt sat to me for her portrait, and Mr. 
Vanderbilt requested me to try to obtain " La Vicaria " from the Marquise de Carcano 
(who was then and is still the owner of this masterpiece), and to offer for it 250,000 
francs. The Marquise, being especially fond of the magnificent picture, did not wish 
to part with it, and would not accept my offer. Some time after this, M. Georges Petit 
tried to buy the picture, but with no better success, although he offered 500,000 francs. 

Mr. Stewart always regretted that he had not been able to secure this fine 
work, and it was he who commissioned Fortuny to paint " Le Choix du Modele." A 
few years later the master enriched the fine arts by this veritable gem. Although the 
picture was finished in Rome, part of it was painted in Paris. I remember one night 
at the Palais-Royal Theatre, where we were spending the evening, Fortuny, who was 
a keen observer, was particularly struck by the appearance of Lh^ritier, the actor. 
Upon his return home he bestowed upon the figure in the canvas — that stands, with 
snuff-box in hand, in the group that is looking at the model — the features of the 
comedian who had attracted his attention. This picture met with the greatest success. 
V^hen Couture went to see it he was amazed, and in a very interesting letter written 
to Mr. Stewart made it the subject of the highest praise. He expressed regret that 
Fortuny had not yet painted a picture which he had ordered from him. 

Another very remarkable canvas in the collection is a study of Meissonier. I 
cannot pass over in silence the following anecdote: 

For one of the figures in "La Vicaria" Fortuny needed a model who had the 
characteristic legs of a horseman. He was speaking of it to Meissonier, who said 
suddenly: "A horseman? Why . . . me!" Thus the great painter served 
Fortuny as a model, astonished and bewildered at the same time, at the rapidity with 
which he made the sketch. Upon his return from Poissy Fortuny confided to me that 

in order not to abuse the good nature of Meissonier he had not worked on the head as 
he would have liked to, but contented himself by completely finishing the legs ! 

Fortuny could not bear the sight of death. During a trip which we took 
together to Seville, I found it impossible to make him look at the ideally perfect head 
of a young Andalusian, whose body, following the custom of the country, was exposed 
in a glass coffm. And when M. Castillo lost his daughter, Fortuny gave the deepest 
proof of his affection to his friend by painting a portrait of the dead girl. Owing 
to reverses of fortune, this portrait found its way into the collection of Mr. Stewart. 

" Fantasia Arabe," also to be found in the collection, was the first picture pur- 
chased by this keen connoisseur. Then came " L'Antiquaire," to which Fortuny added 
some finishing touches after his trip to Paris in 1869. What was the surprise of Mr. 
Stewart, to perceive in the background of the picture a portrait of himself, that For- 
tuny had made from a photograph. It is said that whenever his friends asked why 
he did not have his portrait painted he would reply that he already had one, an admir- 
able likeness, painted by Fortuny. 

It was in London in 1871 that Mr. Stewart increased his collection by buying 
" Le Dejeuner" and " L'Arquebusier " — two paintings, in payment of which he gave 
M. Goupil, in addition to a certain sum of money, a small portrait of Meissonier on 
horseback, painted by himself. The background of this picture was painted at 

I was speaking one day to Mr. Stewart of a fine study of a negro's head which 
Fortuny had in his studio in Rome, and upon his expressing a desire to own it, I 
wrote to Fortuny, who sent it immediately, begging Mr. Stewart to accept it as a 
token of his esteem. This head is the only one of the kind that the famous artist 
made in the same dimensions. 

After Fortuny's death Mr. Stewart bought — with the idea that I would add 
several figures — the unfinished picture, " L'Etang de I'Alhambra," which remained in 
my studio for some time without my being able to decide what to add to it, finally 
coming to the conclusion that it was best to leave the work as it came from the hand 
of Fortuny. 

Great was the enthusiasm produced in Paris by these water colors, which 
revived and gave a new lease of life to this style of painting. It was then, having 
achieved success in this line, that Leloir, Vibert, Worms and others, formed the 
Society of French Water Colorists. 

My object here being only to mention a few incidents which I believe to be of 
some interest, I do not speak of the marvellous and original character of these water 
colors, the reputation of which is universally known. 

" La Rue de Tanger " is a water color which was presented by the artist to Mr. 
Stewart, who went all the way to Rome expressly to see him. 

" Le Kief," a water-color sketch of an Arabian scimeter, was painted under the 
following circumstances : Fortuny was in Madrid, on the eve of starting for Rome. 
An antiquary, anxious to possess one of the artist's works, and knowing the way to 
tempt him, placed before his eyes a magnificent sword-hilt of the period of the Renais- 
sance. Fortuny, with wonderful rapidity, executed the water color, which he gave 
to the antiquary in exchange for the superb hilt which he coveted. 

" Le Maure de Tanger " was sold to Mr. Stewart by the well-known sculptor 
d'Epinay, who always regretted parting with this water color, as he was never able to 
procure another of equal importance by the master. 

Another magnificent picture, " Le Carneval," was painted in Madrid, and pre- 
sented to the director of the Opera-Comique in acknowledgment of a box which he 
had graciously placed at our disposal during our sojourn of six months in Spain. It 
passed from owner to owner, finally coming to augment the collection of Mr. Stewart. 

A beautiful water color, representing an old beggar of the Roman Campagna, 
was exhibited at Durand-Ruel's, in Paris. Saintin, the artist, well known in New 
York, informed Mr. Stewart of the fact, and he bought it at once. 

To finish, I will add that at the sale of the works of Fortuny, which was held in 
Paris, I met a number of collectors and distinguished artists, such as Couture, Dumas, 
M. d'Errazu, etc. — all anxious to obtain a souvenir of the master. 

It was at this sale that Mr. Stewart bought " La Cour des Cochons," " L'Alberca 
de I'Alhambra," " Le Boucher Arabe," and " Un Paysage." 

Neuville offered a sum much too large for an artist's purse for a sketch, and was 
extremely disappointed when it was knocked down to a higher bidder. 

The eminent artist, G^r6me, made several bids for the "Musiciens Arabes," a 
picture which he was very anxious to own; but he did not succeed; it remained in 
the possession of Mrs. Fortuny, who wished to keep it. 

Speaking to me of Fortuny, Gerome said among other things: " How well he 
drew ! There was genius in his touch ! " And he advised his pupils of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts to visit the posthumous exhibition of the great painter. 

Mr. Stewart was a connoisseur of extraordinary ability. He had naturally fine 
taste, but in addition he trained it to such a point that his judgment was almost 
infallible as regards work. As he knew the artists of the present time personally, he 
studied their methods. He discussed art with them. He knew their theories, and 
was thoroughly familiar with all the various modern schools. The result was natur- 
ally shown in the paintings he collected, for they include, in addition to the marvellous 
Fortunys, some of the most remarkable examples of modern art by famous French, 
Spanish, English, German and Italian painters. 





i^~\N a cloudless morning, the eighth of January, 1856, in a small village of Dutch 
^-^ Friesland, Alma-Tadema saw his mother's face and the sun. His family 
name was of ancient renown and is to be found among the archives that tell of the 
Zuyder Zee. The prefix Alma he received from his godfather, and has always used 
it. The early years of his life were passed under conditions of frail health and 
strong antagonisms to his craving to be an artist. When physicians finally declared 
that he would never reach his majority on account of consumptive tendencies, he was 
permitted to fill the brief years allotted as he pleased. So soon as vent was given 
to aspiration, vigor returned and the disease was conquered. He studied in the Gym- 
nasium of Leeuwarden, and entered the Antwerp Academy in 1852. At an early date 
he acknowledged himself a pupil of Baron Henry Leys. His first passion was for the 
Merovingian barbarians, whose picturesque forms, massed against backgrounds of 
splendid tone, drew and held his heart. He advanced through the Nile valley, touched 
by all the dreaming memories of Egypt, to the land of Pallas, and later to the 
imperial city of the Tiber. In 1870 he fixed his residence in London. Although a 
quarter of a century has passed since he received letters of naturalization from his 
Queen, although England knows no more loyal son, he has really never ceased to be 
a citizen of Athens and Rome. From the start his sympathies were with the 
civilizations and peculiar traits of Latin and Hellenic races. The production that 
challenged wide interest and unlatched for him the gate to a triumphant career 
was " Queen Clotilda, Wife of Clovis, First Christian King of France, Instructing her 
Children in Arms." This painting was secured by the Antwerp Society for the 
Encouragement of Fine Arts, from whom it was purchased by the King of the 
Belgians. At the dispersion of his majesty's collection it was brought to the United 

States. Here is shown that clearness of historical detail, that archaeological pre- 
cision, which made his after themes at once the delight and instruction of the 
world. Tadema holds the radical conviction that there is closest kinship between 
art and history. Modes of life, national customs, characteristics — in fine, all that 
enters into and colors the personality of a people belongs to the gift of the artist. 
His realism he took from the soil of Holland, where the very earth was won from 
the hungry sea. Carlyle has said that "for grown persons the only genuine 
romance is reality." This reality is not the crude actual, but that actual trans- 
figured by the light of the higher truth and knowledge which are in the seeing 
mind. Tadema introduces us to life as life throbbed in breasts and flushed in 
faces two thousand years ago. He paints it contented to be human. The logic 
of his work is based upon worthy uses of noble bodies ; hence there is no disdain 
of the mortal, as though the immortal were fouled by its shrine of flesh. He is 
real and radiant in the values of his figure-work. Undraped parts are pure, quiver- 
ing to the tune of health. He is utterly free from any influence of the Romanticists 
of the early Italian schools, who, being shut up to legendary or religious subjects, often 
strain against fetters of dust and wrestle to liberate their saints from ill-conditioned, 
emaciated forms, that they might float into mystical hereafters. Upon the tower- 
front of a cathedral in northern Europe there is an ancient clock that sends out a 
different figure with each hour it strikes. At dawn St. Peter emerges with his warn- 
ing bird, at noon Sol appears bearing a golden hammer, at eventide a nun in white 
and grey, ringing a silver bell. Should the spiders weave a veil over the dial-plate, or 
the striking mechanism fail through rust, the toilers on their way to and fro would 
still know the time of day, so long as the figures came out with regularity on the 
platform above and went in at their folding-doors. Imagine a dire conjunction 
of circumstances through which the records of Greek and Roman history were 
destroyed, a faithful recognition of those periods of the world's march would be 
possible from the creations of Tadema's brain ; so deeply has he been saturated with 
their atmosphere, so thoughtfully has he revealed their daily goings, so steadily has 
he sought, so surely has he found their very selves. We should still see Rome 
and Athens. We could be present at public games, attend the forum, worship in 
the temple, press through marts of trade, share vintage festivals, whirl in Pyrrhic 
dances, behold the pride of Phidias discoursing to his friends on the friezes of the 
Acropolis, enter the ateliers of artists, attend upon Agrippa giving audience to his 
clients, follow the " Tarquinius Superbus " while he knocks off the heads of the 
tallest poppies in his garden, listen to the Praetorians proclaiming as Emperor the 
weak-souled Claudius, who, bleached with fear, hides behind his curtain. Finally 
we stand before Tadema's latest revelation — " The Coliseum " — where 

" The buzz of eager nations ran 
In murmur'd pity or loud roar'd applause." 

The renown of this artist is like the sceptre-sweep of his Queen ; for him it is 
day round the world. Decorations have flushed his breast, yet their weight and 
wealth have left him unhindered and severely simple in his aims. He remains his 
own sternest censor. He is swift with his brush, but conscientious care tarries long, 
not unfrequently effacing weeks of painstaking labor. 

Tadema, following the example of the great composers, who numbered their 
works in the order of their production, passed "Opus 300" some time since. This 
method gives to the connoisseur the chronological evolution of his genius, an intelli- 
gent series of mind-marks whereby to trace the glowing tread of this stanch Lover 
of Truth. 


A SHARPER antithesis could scarcely be imagined than that which chances, in 
■**• the order of this catalogue, to place together the names of Alma-Tadema 
and Santiago Arcos. The single subjects represented by each likewise form a 
vivid contrast. 

Tadema shows us a classic gentleman reading his Horace. Arcos puts on 
his canvas "A Sleeping Fool." Each man has touched a characteristic note in 
the loyal fashion of handling his theme. 

Arcos was born in Santiago, Chili. He studied under Raymundo de Madrazo 
and Leon Bonnat. His first exhibition was in 1873, a painting of large dimen- 
sions, " The Elopement of Chloris." Subsequently he followed the seasons of 
the Salon, chiefly sending portraits. At Madrid he received a medal for his "Philip 
the Second of the Escurial." This was sold to his majesty the King, Alphonse of 
Spain. It is now in an apartment of the royal palace. Special note should be 
made of his water color in the Stewart collection. Arcos had under way studies 
of a number of figures for "The Court of Henry III."; among these a buffoon. 
The model who posed for such a person one day arrived in a complete state 
of inebriety. Having donned his costume, he fell asleep upon a table. At that 
moment Mr. Stewart entered the studio, because he was fond of following the 
work of the younger artists and liked to encourage them. With his usual good 
humor, seeing the sleeper, he exclaimed : " He is perfect like this ; make a water 
color of him." In effect the larger part of the figure was painted during the model's 


THE name of this artist has large and luminous exploitation in the foyer of the 
Grand Opera House of Paris, the walls of which he painted between the years 
1866 and 1874. There was an enforced hiatus on account of the Franco-Prussian 
war. This series of compositions vividly recalls that period of Renaissance frescoes 
which made glorious the palaces of Venice. The boldness of the designs, the poise 
of their treatment, fraught with a harmony of coloration unsurpassed, turn these five 
hundred square meters into fields of immortal legend. The beginnings of such a 
man have a peculiar charm. His father, a peasant of sturdy life, early took him on 
long walks, which generated a love of nature. He never lost the clear-eyed vision 
born through these journeys. The pedantry of teachers, the mechanical methods 
of conventional schools could not cloud it. Wherever his touch falls there is the 
positive accent of form and the articulation of life. His portraits group easily with 
the finest of the modern school. He has succeeded in varying his backgrounds as 
no other artist. His faces are histories. The most notable are : "Baron Jard de 
Panvillier," "Count Foucher de Careil," " M. Guizot," " Mme. Bernstein and her 
Son," "Ambroise Baudry," " M. About," "Charles Gamier," "Mme. Cezard, of 
Nantes," "Mile. Deniere," and "General Count Palikao " in a landscape of battle. 
His " Vision of St. Hubert," to be seen on the chimney front of the grand salon in the 
Chateau of Chantilly, astonished the critics. Of this Charles Ephrussi says : "Some 
have determined to see in it a learned whimsicalness, others a challenge to sanctioned 
and necessary traditions of composition. They were accustomed to the everlasting 
patron of huntsmen piously kneeling before the miraculous cross. Here, in a wintry 
landscape lit up by sunlight without shadows, we find him under the features of 
the Duke de Chartres, like a primitive Capet, dressed in the Byzantine style, seen 
suddenly arrested, in all the ardor of desperate pursuit, before the white and lumi- 
nous stag, erect on the summit of the hills, raising its head to the sky. In an 
assembly of figures, animals, forest trees, and hunting implements of singular but 
scrupulous archaeology, a page, under the sympathetic features of the young Duke 
d'Orlcans, holds a horse, whilst the pack of hounds are restless, not petrified by 
the miraculous apparition, but yelping and howling." He sent to the Salon of 1883 
three pictures that have since become permanent pleasures to the popular heart — 
"La Verita," "Eve," "The Virgin, Jesus, and Saint John." In the first exhibition 

of the Rue de Seze appeared "The Wave and the Pearl." A blue billow crested 
with foam has tossed upon the sand a nude figure of a beautiful maiden, who is 
lying on her side, with her back to the spectator, and turning her face with wondering 
eyes to look and smile at the world. This child of the sea, flung from a wave's 
bosom, lies on the sunny beach, in the midst of mosses and tinted shells, an 
incarnate, stainless joy. 

Baudry was born at La Roche-sur-Yon- Vendee, November 7, 1828 ; was the 
pupil at La Roche of Sartoris and in Paris of Drolling. He won the Grand Prix 
de Rome in 1850 by his " Zenobia Discovered on the Banks of the Araxes." 
Exhibited in Salon 1857. Medals : first class, 1857, 1861-1881 ; Legion of Honor, 
1861 ; Officer, 1869 ; Commander, 1875 ; Member of Institute, 1870. His rank 
is not only among the lordly masters of the sixteenth century, in that golden age 
of decorative art, but is assured in the midst of those immortals who have made 
resplendent the closing years of the nineteenth. 


r)ORN in Paris February 16, 1800, and died there April 10, 1866. He was a 
'—' pupil of Gros and the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He exhibited in every Salon 
from 1822 to 1866, and was decorated with medals: second class, in 1824 and 
1855 ; Legion of Honor, 1834 ; Officer, 1861. He was Director of the Rouen 
Museum 1837 to 1854. His work took expression in genre and historical 
subjects. Horace Vernet was really his master, that great national painter who 
voiced with such dramatic clearness the common taste and mind of France as 
to be called "the artist of the multitude." Bellange marks a transition from 
unreal battle pieces to simple episodic painting ; a free camp life and valorous 
deeds are his special charm. He tells his story of events with graphic truth and 
directness. In the galleries at Versailles he is represented by the battles of 
Wagram, Loano, and Altenkirche (1837-39), with an incident from the retreat 
from Russia (185 1). At the Leipsic Museum he has four pictures. His last and 
finest effort was "The Guard Dies, but does not Surrender." The "Combat in 
the Streets of Magenta" and "The Cuirassiers at Waterloo" were approximations 
to Vernet's best work. 


THIS artist stands in the forefront of tlie Spanish colony at Rome, combining in 
himself the gifts of sculptor and painter. These are so evenly poised that it 
is a problem to decide in which field he excels ; chisel and brush aUke are wielded 
with equal success. He was born in Valencia in 1858. As a pupil of Domingo his 
talents matured early. He secured first honors in every competition, being gold 
medalist at Madrid, Dresden, and Berlin. He is one of the select circle pensioned by 
the Spanish government for residence in Italy, and has executed state orders for the 
decoration of public buildings. 


I\ AARIANO FORTUNY, under date of February 20, 1874, writes from Italy to 
■^ " ^ his friend Mons. W. H. Stewart in Paris: "Don't fail to send me photo- 
graphs of something good, for at Rome we are in the dark. Here they see 
nothing, they know nothing. I would also much like to see something by 
Boldini. Judging from what little 1 have seen, he knows what he is about." 
These two men were destined to develop a decided kinship in the character of 
the works produced by each, and many have deemed Boldini the only artist 
worthy to wear Fortuny's mantle. He was born at Ferrara, Italy, 1845, the son 
of a painter of saints. From Ferrara he went to Florence, where he remained 
six years. His first productions revealed scientific insight and skilled technique. 
Since 1872 he has lived in Paris, a pronounced type, of whom Paris is proud. 
The Spanish dash and swing of motive may be seen in much of his work. He 
is a serene optimist, in love with the warmth and glow of life. After Paris the 
larger number of his patrons may be found in America, where he has received 
generous recognition. One who has known him closely and well, defines his 
artistic personality in these terms: "A lover of sunlight and all the gayety and 
brilliancy of nature it involves, his first real successes were made with pictures 

in which he could give his taste in this direction fullest play. He possessed, in 
a rare degree, the faculty of feeling light as well as seeing it, and of painting it 
as he felt it, so that his sentiment might reach the spectator too. His painting 
of the figure, like that of the landscapes in which he was most fond of setting 
his groups up, was of an exquisite quality of color and ease of handling, and in 
the treatment of interiors his keen eye and accurate hand achieved equally felicitous 
results, always without the burdensome appearance of labor, from which mere 
superficial finish in art must suffer. No artist of his nation and century has, 
perhaps, come nearer to reviving in our day the essential elegance of art in 
France in the last century, when the broad path to the destruction of dynasties 
in a gulf of blood was made beautiful by the utmost refinement of genius with 
pen and brush." 

As a painter of portraits, Boldini commands the noblest constituency. Among 
these that of Verdi is perhaps most eminently characteristic. On this work the art- 
writer Royal Cortissoz comments : 

"Drawn from the life in a few hours, it has] all of Boldini's best qualities 
concentrated and intensified. Nervous, dispassionate, scorning idealization, and 
rendering with the keenest precision every trait revealed by the composer's physiog- 
nomy, it has the vividness of life with a distinction that only art can give to life. 
The style of the portrait, the technical brilliancy, the fire and force, are incomparable. 
There is no portrait painter living who could help envying Boldini the grasp and 
authority expressed in this work. It is a model of splendid workmanship splendidly 


T EON BONNAT was born at Bayonne, France, in 183^. When he was fourteen 
'~^ years old he sought Federico de Madrazo and solicited the honor of being 
among his pupils. This master admonished him of the arduous way and multiplied 
defeats confronting a young artist. Bonnat responded : " So be it, but 1 want to be 
a painter." He entered upon his career with ardor and patience. Not content with 
his conventional routine in the atelier, he commenced studies in the fields. One day 
he exhibited to Madrazo a picture he had painted secretly. The master was sur- 
prised and fascinated. Cordially embracing him, he said : " You, my boy, will make 
your way." He was recalled from Madrid to Paris by a death in his family. In Paris 
he placed himself under the tuition of Leon Cogniet, who was wise enough to leave 
uncurbed his natural bent. In 1857 the citizens of Bayonne furnished funds for his 

residence in Rome, where he tarried four years. His first successes were with small 
Italian pictures of unusual charm. These preluded his religious themes, in which 
he has won wide renown. He commanded attention by his "Adam and Eve Find- 
ing the Body of Abel," which was bought for the gallery at Lille. In 1869 his 
"Assumption of the Virgin" gained universal praise, and determined his drift to 
themes of similar character. His years at Madrid had opened on his heart the dim 
spiritual majesty of the old cathedrals, where he was unconsciously trained for this 
vocation. It has been said that the Scriptures have found in him a naturalistic com- 
mentator. He has been reproached with realism because of the scientific precision 
of his methods. This charge is logically true and openly a commendation of his 
work. His "Jacob Wrestling with the Angel" and "Christ" are the output of the 
world's longing to-day for truth, and lose nothing, but rather gain immeasurably, on 
account of taking such substance and form as the humanity of the present tense can 
grasp and hold. "In him," says M. Gautier, "the historical painter differs totally 
from the genre painter. As the genre painter showed himself fine and delicate, in 
the same degree the historical painter shows himself vigorous and strong." He has 
treated portraits with undisputed superiority, giving us a series of faces that must 
form a precious gallery for posterity. Here will be found such distinguished person- 
ages as "Thiers," Salon of 1877 ; "The Count Montalivet," Salon of 1878 ; " Victor 
Hugo," Salon of 1879 ; " M. Grevy," Salon of 1880; "Leon Cogniet," his second 
master. Salon of 188 1 ; " Puvis de Chavannes," Salon of 1882 ; "Mr. Levi P. Morton," 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States, Salon, 1883. Bergerat's Critique upon 
his portrait of Victor Hugo says : " I do not know how any other painter than Bonnat 
would have come off from the severe and powerful theme that the august visage of 
the greatest poet of modern times offers. Here are no seductive accessories, no bril- 
liant stuffs, nothing that could lighten the agony of an artist's soul, face to face with 
tangible, visible genius. Bonnat was sufficiently strong to undertake such a task, 
but what a stake he played for ! for this time it was not before the public, but before 
immortality that he placed his easel. In art Bonnat is intrepid ; he accepted his work 
in its formidable simplicity. Victor Hugo in a black frock coat, seated in an arm- 
chair, looking steadily in front of him. Those who have had the not-to-be-forgotten 
honor of being admitted to the poet's intimacy well know that black, profound 
glance that shines inwardly. It is the look of him who sees beyond the present. 
How Leon Bonnat has seized it I do not know, but it will be an eternal glory to him. 
What eulogy can one address to the artist who has been able to remain a master 
before such a master ? " 

His portrait by himself reproduces his bronzed virile face with the flaming 
glance that astonished Federico Madrazo and that sparkles brighter than ever under 
the shade of his arched eyebrows. His honors have had significant progression — 
second Grand Prix de Rome, 1858 ; medal of honor, 1869 ; medals : second class. 

1861-63, '69 ; Legion of Honor, 1867 ; Officer, 1874 ; Commander, 1882 ; Member 
of Institute of France and Knight of the Order of Leopold. His portraitures of 
women and children are full of truthful sentiment and delicate observation. They 
are well within the realm of the beautiful without falling to the level of prettiness. 
Leon Bonnat stands for the conjunction between French modern painting and 
the old Spanish schools. He has poured the fresh blood of naturalism into the one, 
and a serene reserve, a chastened passion, into the other. 


A LTHOUGH English by parentage and birth, Richard Parkes Bonington is 
■**• claimed by France. He was born in the village of Arnold, near Nottingham, 
on the 25th of October, 1801, and died in London September 2}, 1828. His 
father was an artist of moderate equipment, doing reasonable things in portraiture 
and landscape. Having exhausted his resources in England, he took his family 
to Paris, where his son studied in the Louvre, and later under the guidance of 
Baron Gros. Eugene Delacroix, swift always to recognize young men of mark, 
gave him fellowship and unqualified praise. His water colors sold rapidly, showing 
landscape and river views, especially exploiting the Seine and street scenes in the 
older sections of Paris. His figure-work was fine, and when introduced into his 
themes gave increased force. He won the gold medal of 1824, and shortly after 
visited Italy, where he executed elaborate Venetian studies. It was in the exhi- 
bition of these that his wider reputation was made. It was a sorrow to Bonington 
that England remained so long ignorant of her son. Two years before his decease 
recognition came through the exhibition of two of his pictures in London, when 
he was favorably mentioned as "an unknown but promising artist." It was some- 
what of a comfort that for ten years Parisians had literally contended for the 
privilege of purchasing from his easel. The seal of death was set on him by the 
hot sun while painting out-of-doors. He caught a fever which developed into 
hasty consumption. He sought medical skill and rest in England, but his splendid 
physique had been undermined, and he passed hence, in the home of a friend, 
after a confining illness of three weeks. Sir Thomas Lawrence, writing of Boning- 
ton's demise, said : "I have never known in my own time an early death of 
talent so promising, so rapidly and obviously improving." Bonington produced 
a number of lithographs, which are to-day greatly treasured by collectors. His 
painting, "Francois et la Duchesse d'Etampes," is in the Louvre. 


As the poet in the realm of words is the real and complete artist ; as his metrical 
setting enables him to show a part as well as a whole, to make perfect the 
smallest thing, to give beauty and immortality to an emotion, an image, 

" As when the dawn glows o'er the glowing deep, 
And sea and sky are but asunder as a two-leaved book 
All of one story," 

which may not be expanded beyond the dozen lines of a sonnet — so Bonvin has, in 
contrast to the prosing artists of his time, caught the sonnet spirit for his themes. 
This is the more marvelous when we recall that he had no quiet retreat or chosen 
tower in which to open his note-book, but kept a wayside inn. He had only the 
chill hours of the morning or the weary ones of the night, when, for a brief space, 
he was free from the bitter railings of a wife (who faithfully misunderstood him), in 
which to make his studies and paint his water colors. 

He was born at Vaugirard, within the environs of Paris, on February 28, 1834. 
His father had been in turn a servant, a barber, a soldier, and a gendarme. His last 
avocation was that of a rural policeman, with the privilege of selling drink. The old 
man, it is said, though virtuous, was ferociously selfish. He would not allow his 
sons to be apprenticed to a trade, but kept them home to act as waiters. Leon, the 
youngest of four brothers, was buffeted from childhood. He was large-boned, of 
heavy build, awkward, and apparently clumsy-handed. Beneath this coarse vesture 
there were fibres as delicate as those of a sensitive child, nerve-lines that trembled 
in the breath of flowers, tuneful chords more easily touched than those of an v^olian 
harp. He devoted himself to water colors. His brother Francois, who early ran 
away from home to become, in due time, a painter of pronounced power, saw in 
his rough chrysalis the folded wings, and sent him to the school in the Rue de I'ficole 
de Medicine, founded in the eighteenth century by Bachelier. In 1861 he married, 
and was thereafter perpetually reminded of the harness he had put on. Through 
pictures painted by him we are familiar with the interior of his house, which had 
been built out of materials given him by contractors in part payment for his keep- 
ing of their accounts, on the day when they came to eat at his tavern and to settle 
with their factors. He had learned music from an old German who lived near by, 

and played with discriminating taste. Beethoven was his favorite ; Gluck often 
relieved his silence and sorrow. There was a room just above the bar, where he 
had placed a harmonium, bought after years of patient saving of small sums paid 
him as pourboires. His wife, an ignorant, scofifing creature, would suddenly rush 
up the stairs, tap him on the shoulder, and say : " Leon, you are boring the people 
down below with your gloomy church music. Play them something gay." He 
would respond by melodies which the street organs had brought into fashion, and 
thus lose the enchantment of his heart under the spell of the great tone masters. 
He was in the habit of painting early in the day, before customers arrived for their 
draught of white wine. At night he would work under the light of a lamp 
inclosed in a box, which flung a broad radiation upon the flowers which he had 
gathered. In a thoughtful review of his individuality as an artist another has said : 

"Those who have tried with sincerity to paint flowers in the open air have felt 
how difficult it is to combine accessories with them ; either their brilliancy must be 
subordinated to the landscape, or the landscape must be sacrified. Leon Bonvin has 
succeeded in accomplishing the alliance with a talent all the more sure because it is 
simple and without artifice. Here we have a family of goldfinches that have alighted 
on the dry branches of some thistles and wild aniseed ; the vermilion of their beaks, 
the black of their cowls, the chrome of their wings, animate with sparks of brightness 
the opal gray of the fog through which the sun is penetrating. There we have a 
chrysanthemum which has grown up vigorously on a heap of rubbish, and glories 
in its starry flowers with their sulphur-yellow centres, while in the successive planes 
of the morning mist one sees a man digging, the profiles of the edge of a village and 
of the church steeples. (See the aquarelle entitled 'The Market-Garden.') Here, 
again, is a fuller's thistle with its silhouette of threatening prickles, some wild carrots, 
and grasses shooting up in tender tubes ; their outlines strike across a sky of light, 
drifting vapors ; the light of the horizon is broken by the glacis of the fort of Issy, 
and by the outstretched arms of a windmill. Another water color is an evening 
effect of boundless melancholy. We might believe ourselves in a cemetery assisting 
at some tragic and distant conflagration which is flinging its sad smoke in the air. 
Through the knolled branches, which are losing their leaves, a woman is seen pass- 
ing, bent beneath a burden, and hastening toward a cold-looking and cheerless 

These four water colors belong to the collection of the late Mr. W. T. Walters, 
of Baltimore, who bought them of the artist. Mr. Walters possessed more than fifty 
examples of Bonvin's genius. Twenty are landscapes combined with flowers, ten 
are landscapes alone, fifteen are subjects of flowers, and ten are studies of fruit. He 
could image an apple bough in blossom so freshly that its perfume would seem to 
fill the nostrils. Bonvin had no interest for plants that were prisoners ; hothouse 
growths were without a voice to him. When asked by Mr. Walters whether he 

had not a desire to paint cultivated flowers he answered : "Do not ask me to do 
these ; my heart is not in them." A half-witted daisy by the roadside lifted a friendly 
face to his own, while the grasses and gorse of the fields were for him the motives 
and messengers of Heaven's kindness to earth. It was pitiful beyond words that this 
rare-natured man was left to fight in solitude his hard battle with misery and want. 
Friends have since read in his work premonitions of the hopeless struggle and blind 
despair. " I have seen in the collection of Mr. Lucas," writes one, " a picture which 
answers to the impressions of his aching soul : beyond a foreground of buttercups, 
wild roses, and brambles stretch a landscape darkened by the approach of a storm ; 
some fields, where a few stunted trees are growing ; a pool of water, in which is 
reiflected a bit of dim blue sky ; some hills quite near, that give one the sensation 
of a closed life. Generally, and even nearly always, the signature of Leon Bonvin 
is traced neatly in black ; in this case it is written in somber red. This signature 
is followed by the date, 1865. 

"The winter of 1865 was terrible for Leon Bonvin. Other taverns had been 
opened in the neighborhood as the new houses advanced over the plain. The work- 
men had perhaps felt embarrassed at coming into contact with artists and bourgeois, 
and they no longer came. Leon Bonvin, having nothing to do at home, had even 
worked as a carter with the stone wagons. Debts were accumulating. He had a 
bill of thirteen hundred francs to meet. He was tortured by jealousy. His heart 
and his hands were torn by every thorn. 

" On January 29, 1866, he went to return some ancient glass which had been 
obligingly lent to him ; thence to see a dealer in water colors, who did not deign to 
choose anything out of his portfolio. He found all the water colors ' too dark, not 
gay enough.' 

' ' A week afterward M. Francois Bonvin addressed the following letter to M. 
Albert de la Fizeliere, who, a few weeks before, had called attention to the misery 
of the artist. 

" ' My Dear Sir: Here is a very sad conclusion for your article in the Evinement 
of the 13th November last. My poor brother, in spite of all his efforts, has been 
overcome by evil fortune. The attempts which he made a week ago to sell the last 

drawings he had executed were vain. The picture-dealer offered him ten 

francs for drawings for which the others ordinarily paid him sixty francs. 

" 'The future seemed to him more gloomy than the past. Instead of confiding 
to me the full extent of his needs, he determined to have done with everything, and 
he went and hung himself on a tree in the wood of Meudon on the evening of 
January 31. You knew him, and you know that fraternity does not blind me when 
1 proclaim that he was indeed the best and purest of the best. As an artist, one has 
only to look at his drawings to recognize his worth. His musical aptitudes were 

" 'Ail this is dead ! 

" 'Now there remain three children and a weakly wife, and I myself, who am 
almost in as great misery, for at the present moment all the fruit that 1 have gathered 

of my labors is to have but few debts relatively to what I should have had if 1 had 
allowed myself all the necessaries of life. We need, then, dear sir, your kind aid to 
endeavor to organize a sale. For my part, I have never failed to respond to the 
appeals that have been made to me by others in similar circumstances, and 1 hope I 
shall find amongst our colleagues enough sympathy to help me in the sad mission 
which has fallen to my lot. 

" ' F. BONVIN. 
" ' 6th of January, 1860. 

" 'P.S. — His body was not found until Saturday, at Meudon, at the foot of a 
tree, near the pond of Villebois. The branch had broken. This is the only damage 
he ever did in his life. He was just thirty-two years of age.'" 

A broken branch in a forest, unconsciously broken ; the only damage he ever 
did in his life. The Church buried him in unconsecrated ground, forgetting that 
from a child he had read the gospels of God's blossoms, and had pondered the 
hour-book of Nature as a breviary for meditation and prayer. 

Could birds and flowers have held convocation over the cold clay, they 
might have said : " Let us put him beneath a coverlid of moss in the stillest spot 
of Meudon wood, and tell the frail violets he loved to grow there always for his 

(Norn de plume) 

T^HE Count Amedee Charles Henri de Noe was born January 20, 18 19, on a 
■'■ small island near Mirande, whence the name of the family is derived, whose 
nobility dates from the Carlovingian kings. He studied under Paul Delaroche, 
Charlet, and Launy. As Ham was the second son and scapegrace of Noah, so 
"Cham," or Ham, was the second son and scapegrace of Jude Amedee Compte 
de Noe, a peer of France. His mother was an English lady. He was a great wit, 
and the political caricaturist of Charivari (the French Punch). The count was one of 
the founders of the Republic in 1875. The blending of two strains of blood in his 
veins combined the most striking characteristics of the two nations. His satiric 
force was sweeping and yet concise. Paris afforded rich soil and hot incongruities 
for his ranging pencil. The downfall of the Empire, the incoming of the Republic, 
with its communistic tendencies, brought about the very complications in which 
the caricaturist delights. "Cham" was the largest figure in his day in the school 
of satire, and was openly recognized as the successor to Gavarni, than which higher 
praise cannot be spoken. He died in the year 1879. Only a few of his productions 
bear the family name; they generally show his pseudonym, "Cham." 


THIS distinguished Belgian was born at Bruges, 1819. He was the pupil of 
Gudin, in Paris, devoting himself to genre marine subjects, breaking the tradi- 
tions of the average artist, who spasmodically surges over his canvas with great 
storms. Clays was Wordsworthian in his work, revealing the waters asleep or 
stirred by the tide's pulses. His studies on the birth of waves under the caress 
of the breeze; the uneasy shivers that have a menace of the winds in them ; the 
clearness of rivers widening to the sea ; the snapping reflections of the sun's rays 
crossing the faint crests that shimmer on the bosom of the Scheldt ; the cool tones 
and humid greys of the skies of western Flanders ; these are the motifs that allure 
his hand. He settled at Brussels, where, in 185 1, he received the gold medal. 
At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Zuyder Zee" and "A Canal in Zealand." 
His later works show travel beyond the girdle of his moist horizons — views on the 
Thames and of the North Sea. In these he still held to his mood of serenity. "The 
magical charm of morning, the golden brilliancy of the evening twilight, the infinite 
variety of tones which light produces on waves, became the ideal of the sea painters 
after Clays." Like him, they scarcely left the shore, or, at least, when taking the 
track of the high seas, kept a blue line of hills on the horizon. 


"I X TE recognize in the name of this artist one of the most interesting landscape 
" " painters of Europe. His studio is in Brussels, where he has been honored 
with the Order of Leopold. Among his impressive works may be numbered 
"Entrance to Gorge aux loups in Fontainebleau Forest" (Exposition Universelle, 
Amsterdam, 1883), " Road in Heath of Geuck Plateau Belle Croix at Fontainebleau" 
(Munich Exhibition, i88j), "Autumn Landscape" (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 
He has by sheer force of perception and exactness of knowledge put before us 
examples of strong feeling. The two landscapes in this collection indicate that 
I'.c went straight to nature. Few winter scenes run so perfectly the entire gamut 
of cold notes and with such simplicity of expression. 


'T'HIS distinguished landscape painter was born in Paris, July 20, 1796 ; he died 
*^ there February 23, 1875. He was the pupil of Michallon and of Victor Bertin. 
These taught him little. He says that, having passed two winters with Bertin when 
he arrived in Rome, he was the merest tyro at sketching. "Two men stopped to 
converse ; I began to sketch them, beginning on one part — the head, for example. 
They would separate, leaving me with a couple of pieces of their heads on my paper. 
1 saw some children on the steps of a church ; no sooner did I begin to sketch 
than their mother called them. 1 saw that in this way my portfolio would be filled 
with ends of noses, foreheads, and locks of hair. 1 resolved not to return, when 1 
went out to sketch, without having something in its entirety. I attempted, there- 
fore, to sketch, in the twinkling of an eye, the first group that presented itself : if the 
figures remained in position for a time, I had at least the character — the general out- 
line ; if they remained long, I added details. I practiced in this way until I was able 
to fix the outlines of a ballet at the opera, with a few strokes made with lightning- 
like celerity." This habit came to the front when he wrestled breast to breast with 
Nature, applying himself not so much to the form and line as to the life. In the 
clear-eyed, sympathetic study which M. Albert Wolff has given to his work, we 
find these words : "The controlling principle in this great artist is never to strike 
the Philistine by panoramic magnitude, but to establish in his art the vibration 
which is in Nature, to take by surprise its perpetual life, to send the air circulating 
through space, to shake the foliage in the breeze. He wishes to disengage and 
carry to his canvas the poet's impression of the object. This poetry, he rightly 
deems, is not only in the composition — the composition is to him of small account — 
it is in the truth, for nothing is of such finished poetry as truth itself. Whether 
it be the old bridge of Mantes, glimpsed through the tall trees which reflect them- 
selves in the sunny waters, or Garda Lake, stretching out of sight into the light 
of dawn, with the leafage of the trees upon its brink trembling in the wind — it is 
always the country feeling which this artist applies to his canvas, whatever the 
aspect. Corot is the excelling interpreter of the serenity of Nature. 

"We need not be surprised that a style, springing, as it may be said, all fresh 
from the nerves of a primitive artist who sought the support of no predecessor, was 
so long a subject of debate. The public had been so habituated to see filing before 

its eyes a succession of rigid landscapes that it was naturally troubled before the 
vibrating themes of Corot. Those who recommence eternally the official teaching 
of the schools rejected him desperately. And he, the quiet, inspired man, heard 
little of the clamor in the solitude of his woods, on the banks of the pool, where 
he opened his soul to the enchantment of creation." 

Corot has opened to us the strong tenderness of Nature's heart. He remem- 
bered that from of old the pillars of Hiram were crowned with lilies; that the mountain 
wall must carry its frieze of mosses, the forest its fringe of ferns. He has the mood 
of Hellenic calm, and is a Greek in the joyous accord which he feels with the rhythmic 
pulse of the universe. He has, as no other, found the secret of massing tree-forms 
and foliage on trees, which makes the leaf type the tree and the tree the leaf. A 
gigantic oak is lifted against the sky, in the two color tones of a single banner on 
its boughs, showing the misty green of the up side and grey of the down side. This 
scientific glance and grasp is suggestive of the whole range of Corot's realism, 
which is interpenetrated with dreams of the ideal. He has helped the world to 
breathe and feel its atmosphere. Breadth of view is on the vision of those who 
sit at his feet. He is the herald of the gentle dawn; the evangelist of the evening 
fields. "But he is monotonous," says the critic — "grey, always grey." "To 
thoroughly appreciate my landscapes," said Corot, "it is at least necessary to have 
patience, to let the fog clear up. They are not easily understood, but when they 
are understood they ought to please." His verdure and sunlight may seem to 
drift past us as under a veil, but on the farther side every object retains its relative 
value. The Divine Limnist works behind half-translucent curtains. The heavens 
have their azure of mystery, 

"And store the dew in their deeps of blue, 
Which the fires of the sun come tempered through." 

France paid to Corot the signal honor of an exhibition of his works in the 
Melpomene, the grand hall of the ficole des Beaux Arts. Two hundred of his can- 
vases occupied the walls where Baudry's masterpieces won their unanticipated 
triumph. In 1833 he received a second-class medal ; two of the first class came 
to him in 1848 and 1855. In 1846 he received the Legion of Honor, and was 
made an Officer in 1867. A little while before his head was pillowed in final 
rest, the artists, independent of the official partisans of exhibitions, held a meeting, 
and offered Father Corot a gold medal. With radiant heartiness he thanked those 
whom he called his children. He had the privilege of never growing old ; his 
life was a perpetual artistic renovation. 

" When young he had strolled singing over the plains ; advanced years found 
him just as free from care as he had been half a century before. We discovered him 
bent like a schoolboy over his themes to the last, now erasing with a movement of 

anger the study which would not come up to the example of nature contemplated 
by the artistic eye, now drawing back with sudden satisfaction to better calculate 
the effect of the effort ; when we would hear him from far off, approving himself 
aloud and awarding himself a prize, with the words ' Famous, that bit ! ' or criticis- 
ing himself roundly with the sentence, ' We will begin it all over again, my lad ! ' " 
He passed serenely to his rest. On his final day he roused with a smile, 
and said : " Last night, in my dreams, I saw a landscape with a sky all rosy. 
It was charming, and still stands before me quite distinctly ; it will be marvelous 
to paint." Above Ville d'Avray there lingers yet a sky of rose, like the after- 
glow of an Egyptian sunset, and in that sky shines the steady star of his fame. 


A N artist who has shown to the world a fresh view of the loveliness of nature. 
■*~* He had in a peculiar sense his own standpoint and individual equation, which 
gave glimpses and opened vistas hitherto sealed. He was born in Paris in 1817, 
and was the youngest of the famous Barbizon circle. His antecedents were favor- 
ing forces to his chosen vocation, his father and kindred being exhibitors at 
the Salon. He passed his curriculurh in the studio of Delaroche, and appeared, 
when nineteen years old, with a picture and an etching in the Salon of 1836. 
Through a misapprehension as to terms of competition, he lost the 'T'rix de Rome. 
Instantly he determined to go to the imperial mother at his own charges. In 
company with his room-mate, named Mignan, he started on a tour to Italy. To 
meet the expenses of the expedition, they pinched and saved small sums, putting 
them in a hole punched in the wall. At the end of the year they tore down the 
wall and found eighteen hundred francs in their hands. Henriet, in his memoirs, 
narrates: " Daubigny and Mignan set out, knapsack on back, heavily shod, stick in 
hand, intoxicated with sunshine and liberty. They felt that all the world was their 
own. Their walk was one long enchantment as they saw new perspectives open 
every moment before their eyes and a succession of panoramas unrolled, at the 
richness, the accent, and the variety of which they marveled. Beyond Lyons they 
recognized with ecstasy the presence of the South by the intenser light of the sky 
and the grandeur of the landscape dressed in a vegetation unknown in our latitudes 
— the olive, the cypress, the pine, all the beloved trees of the antique idyl. They 
passed at last across the delightful gfarden shut in on the left by the first mountains 

of the Alps and on the right by the peaks of the Cevennes. At last they trod the 
epic soil of Italy. They visited Florence, Rome, and Naples, finally settling down 
to work at the old Roman resort of Subiaco." 

The two friends remained in Italy a year, when again they started northward, 
heading for Paris, walking every foot of the distance and arriving penniless. But 
little trace of Italian influence can be found in the pictures of Daubigny, in which 
regard he distinctly differed from Corot, who absorbed with eagerness the classic 
charm of Italy, revealing it in his style ever after, most notably in his canvas of 
"Orpheus Greeting the Morn." At the age of twenty-three Daubigny attained 
success, and never lost it. 

In 1848 he won a second-class medal, in 1853 one of the first class. The seal 
was set upon his reputation when the Emperor, in 1852, purchased his picture of 
" The Harvest " for the Tuileries, following it, in 1853, with the purchase of another 
for St. Cloud. In 1859 he was invested with the Legion of Honor ; was made an 
Officer of the Order in 1875. 

The picture that won him the Cross of the Legion was "Springtime." A 
peasant girl rides through a field of tender, upright grain ; the marked features in 
the landscape show groups of young apple trees, whose branches quiver with blos- 
soms. It was purchased by the government, and is now in the Louvre. Daubigny 
was destined to be the enchanter of the rivers of France. He built a large boat, 
which became his drifting studio and home. This was arranged for long trips ; 
the cooking was done on board ; there was a good wine cellar and well-filled larders. 
Here he adjusted his easel and "went on the watch" for scenes. He became a 
familiar figure to the peasants and boatmen along the banks of the Oise, the Marne, 
and Seine, who grew fond of him and called him "captain," a title which gave him 
pleasure, as he affected, so far as his voyages would allow, to be a hardened sailor, 
made rugged by risky navigations. 

His "Valley of the Optivoz," painted in 1853, ranks a masterpiece. Of this 
picture the Count Clement de Riz says : "The eye rests on every part with pleasure 
and floats undecided between the sapphire of the sky and the velvet of the vegetation. 
One seems to smell the clover and hay, to hear the hum of the insects, and catch 
the sparkling of the light over the wheat fields." 

His " Lock of the Optivoz," exhibited in the Salon of 1855, was bought by the 
government, and is in the Louvre, as are also "Springtime" and the "Vintage." 

In the special class of subjects to which he was drawn he was unrivaled and has 
found no successor. His influence on the art of the century, like sun-rays that have 
penetrated the earth, cannot be overestimated. Of him Albert Wolff says: "He 
brought to landscape painting the realistic keynote in the best sense of the term — that 
is to say, the matching of real objects by a deeply felt stroke, so that with each new 
sensation freshly breathed in the presence of Nature, he shifted his art ; in one picture, 

where the painter has paused to smile at the perfect grace of a landscape, his painting 
is full of the lambent flatteries which accompany a beam of the sun in the springtime; 
in another, where he has found himself astounded before the grandeur of the scene, 
he rises to the calm height of greatest art ; when the landscape had struck him, espe- 
cially by its general planes, he flung it on the canvas in those marvelous sketches 
which the artist refused to carry on further because he had nothing to add to this 
massy statement ; at other times he insinuates himself into details as exhaustively as 
possible and refines on his work to the utmost limits of execution. The career of 
Daubigny is based on the simple and truthful art theory that the handling of a picture 
ought to reflect the mood felt, that the painter can no more work perpetually in the 
same style than the writer can employ an unvarying form for the play of his thought." 

When he reached the meridian of his triumphs, beset by collectors, solicited 
by dealers, fawned upon by Paris, he remained uncorrupted and could not be tempted 
like Pere Corot, who, in late life, not unfrequently did hurried service to his art in the 
shape of small panels, which the old man was pleased to call "little dreams." Of 
the group to which he belonged he was perhaps nearest to Corot not only in artistic 
sympathy, but in tenderness of personal affection. He was therefore pained at noting 
his hasty work, and blamed him for it with some bitterness. Daubigny kept his 
heart sweet to the end. He died of a disease contracted through long exposures 
in his "La Bottin." The damp river shores yielded winsome shadings of mist and 
light, but they also surrendered rheumatisms that clutched him remorselessly, lining 
his clear face with pain and aging him beyond his age. 

Death found him waiting without fear. As the vesture of his mortality was 
unclasped, his thoughts turned to those who had dropped their mantles before 
him, "his rivals in renown." He said between final spasms for breath: "Adieu; 
1 am going to see up there whether friend Corot has found me any new subjects 
for landscape painting." 


'IPHE picture by which Decamps entered the Salon of 1827 was that of a Turk, 
■■■ which, it is said, was evolved from his inner consciousness. He had not yet 
visited the East, but the soft fire of a thoroughbred Orientalist glowed in his blood, 
originally kindled, perchance, through the arteries of some far-off ancestor. Decamps 
was born in Paris, March 3, 1803 ; he died at Fontainebleau, August 22, i860. He 

was sent, when a boy, into the country, where he ran wild ; his only companion- 
ship was that of peasants, whose patois he spoke, whose manners he imitated. This 
unrestrained period, lasting for three years, gained a strong grip on the development 
of his character, which was always impatient of restraint. His tastes gravitated to 
the unrefined side of society. Conscious of intense possibilities, he was eager to 
break the shell that limited them, yet unready to discipline his powers by that 
training and intelligence which are the impartial but arbitrary conditions of permanent 
success. Looking backward through misspent opportunities, he lived to grieve 
bitterly over the loss of that larger birthright which might have been his. Monsieur 
Chesneau, in the Chefs d'Bcole, says of Decamps' youthful blunders: "Cruel 
chastisement for an hour of weakness at the decisive time ! he lived with the 
crushing certainty that he had not expressed what was in him ; he died with the 
conviction of having left his work undone." It was his ambition to rank as a great 
historical painter, but just here the fetter lay on his faculty ; he had not the academic 
training, the skill of fiber which means drill of force, the alert and technical vision 
which pierces the semblances of affairs and goes direct to the crimson center of life's 
battle. Had Decamps known, in his formative period, the tuition of a great master, 
there would have been absolutely no measure to the display of his magnificent equip- 
ment. Bravely facing the inner captivities which he mourned, he has wrought a 
marvelous series of canvases, setting the almost fierce individualism of his work on 
the very eye-line of the world's salon. There are critics who, differing from Decamps' 
judgment, feel that he has been the gainer for the lack and loss of early discipline. 
They say he was a predestined artist ; that his taste came without effort ; that his 
finest traits are found in what he did in defiance of the instruction he received ; that 
the heroic painters, the men of Titanic build, fail to indicate the slightest influence of 
their teachers. True ; but we must bear in mind that it appears a satire on the part 
of Providence to appoint mediocre ability to develop the children of genius. The 
master of Decamps was Abel de Pujol, whom Albert Wolff classifies as really some- 
body under the Restoration, while waiting to be nobody at all under Louis Philippe. 
Decamps showed a large susceptible soul to the world of events around him. Sensi- 
tively responding to these, he took control of the facts they presented, sought the 
environment and local color with care, and then put them out through the luminous 
impressions of his own intelligence. The East he dreamed of in his studio at 
Fontainebleau was not the East he found when, inspired by the struggle of the 
Greeks for independence, he hurried to Athens, his brain full of the ideals of 
Pericles, his heart stung with ardor in their behalf. The disenchantment was not 
long in coming, not only there, but afterward in Asia Minor and along the shore- 
lines of the Mediterranean. When he had seen and digested the Greek, the Turk, 
the Arab on their native soils, he returned to Paris far wiser and quite willing to 
break forever with those creatures that pose or stride in the average Eastern picture. 

It is not a matter of wonder that after dipping his brush in the actual sunlight of the 
Orient he became the colorist of his time. His effort never degenerates into trivi- 
ality. He paints a brace of beggars with the dignity of patriarchs, and an episode 
from a street corner in Cairo with the charm of an old world idyl. It has been 
observed that while Delacroix painted with color, Decamps painted with light. His 
figures are draped in the glow of the sun. He was attracted by scriptural themes, 
as evidenced in his "Samson" and "The Good Samaritan." Honors were wel- 
comed, but to him appeared few and inadequate. He could not be satisfied, because 
unrestful before a goal unreached. He took his bread from the world, but found 
it a stone in his hand when he sought to feed his loftier aspirations. The lone- 
liness, the pathos of his career irritated his heart. We read the roll of his medals 
— Paris, 1831-1834 ; Legion of Honor, 1839 ; Officer of the same, 1851 — and are 
certain that to him these were but small crests for the decoration of an evening hour 
compared to the ideal for which his spirit thirsted. 

Suddenly thrown from his horse, and violently striking a tree, he was killed 
in the forest of Fontainebleau. 


T TE was born in Paris, March 8, 1843. His master in art was Carolus Duran. 
■*■•■■ As genre painter he obtained medals — third class, 1874, and first class, 1879 ; 
Legion of Honor, 1880. His large religious pictures brought him his first-class 
medal. Subsequently he turned aside from expressions of this character and took 
a more varied range of subjects. He painted animals, landscapes, portraits. His 
representations of street and cafe life have fine stories, told in a firm yet delicate 
strain. He has kept the freshness of his early emotions and the ardor of his original 
enthusiasms. His career not unfittingly stands for the counsel of Leonardo da Vinci : 
"It is not being a strong man among painters to succeed in only one thing — the 
nude, the head, animals, landscapes. There is no mind so gross that in time, 
with continued and earnest application to one thing, it cannot succeed in accom- 
plishing it satisfactorily. A painter should be universal, study everything he comes 
in contact with, render account of all that he sees, let nothing remarkable pass 
without keeping a sketch or reminder of it, and only cling to what is in all ways 


HE was born at Sedan (Ardennes), November 3, 1841. A pupil of Pils and Leon 
Cogniet. Patiently seeking the path of the historical painter, he has 
achieved solid success, ranking with Detaille as a leader in the new school of military 
artists. Fine composition, correct color, and vigorous treatment are combined with 
a thorough perception of the war spirit and a mastery of technical details. His 
soldiers are not men who have come out of an enamel factory, stiff and rigidly 
complete, not wanting a gaiter button, but are plastic forms drilled into strength, 
who have been under fire and have not flinched. Medals : 1872, 1874 ; Legion of 
Honor, 1878. 


T^HE favorite pupil of Gleyre was born at Poncin, 1858. Under his master's 
■* suggestion he adopted a style of light genre subjects treated in fresh and 
luminous coloration. His medals were awarded — third class, 1863; second class, 
1874. At the Salon of 1875 he exhibited "The Garden of the Godmother" ; in 
1874, "The Fiances," a picture of unusual refinement. His "Flower Market" 
was a delightful epitome of Paris. The actual technique leaves nothing to be desired; 
every detail is elaborated with fidelity, but the amount of detail is excessive, the 
minutiae overdone. While no color note is missing, the theme lacks synthesis, 
that texture as a whole, that breadth of light and shade which becomes the har- 
monic utterance of a great picture achieved by Claude Monet's "Field of Poppies." 
Firman-Girard achieves it in another canvas, known as "The Flower Girl," which 
has placed his reputation on an enduring basis. Here every value is balanced 
with the veritable touch of a master. The girl is a lovely outblossoming of flesh, 
pure, radiant, and naive; the perfumed chalices she cries are but garden echoes of 
herself. The Stewart collection gains in this example a melodic charm not to be 
found elsewhere. 


T^fiUS is a small thrifty town in the Province of Tarragona. An event significant 
•^ ^ for the universal art world occurred at six o'clock in the morning, June ii, 
1838 : a man-child was born to Mariano Fortuny, a cabinetmaker, and his wife, 
Teresa Marsal. The waters of baptism consecrating this new pilgrim within a 
few hours after his advent, were administered by Juan Yxart, parish priest of the 
Church of St. Peter the Apostle. The child, named also Mariano Fortuny, shot 
prophetic flashes into the near future, and foretold in early years the career he 
was destined to follow. When a mere lad he lost his father and mother. He often 
gypsied over the country, tramping leagues to display a group of wax figures. 
At the age of fourteen he left Reus, accompanied by his grandfather, who was 
taking him a journey of sixty miles, walking every foot of the distance, to meet 
M. Domingo Talarn. This artist was at once fascinated by the sketches shown him. 
On October 3, 1853, Mariano was registered on the rolls of the Academia de Bellas 
Artes, of Barcelona, where he remained until the end of 1856, studying meanwhile 
under M. Claudio Lorenzalez. In 1855 he painted in distemper several themes of 
significant size based upon religious subjects. A strong impulse stirred his mind 
through the figure-work of Gavarni, whose influence he never ceased to feel. In 
November he began to fit himself for the competition for the prize of a pensioner at 
Rome, offered by the Provincial Council. He drew on wood, made cuts, lithographed, 
and etched. These variations produced little of value, but gave to eye and hand a 
certain subtle perception and deftness of touch which culminated in a mastery with 
the brush unsurpassed and rarely equaled. 

Fortuny gained, by the unanimous vote of the Council, the Prix de Rome, 
March 6, 1857. His subject was "Raymond 111. Nailing the Arms of Barcelona to 
the Castle Tower of Foix." He left for Rome March 14, 1858, and arrived five days 
later. One can picture this youth of twenty years confronting the garnered treas- 
ures, the serious commands, the majestic memories, the lofty ideals, the processional 
splendors of that imperial city. With keen discrimination and a naive independence 
of judgment, he writes of his impressions, under date of May 3d, to his old master, 
M. Lorenzalez : 

"What I admire above all are the frescoes of Raphael at the Vatican, par- 
ticularly 'Mount Parnassus,' the 'School of Athens,' the 'Dispute on the Holy 

Sacrament,' and the 'Burning of Bergo.' The other masters did not impress me as 
I expected. What I call a well-painted picture, and which I place above all others, is 
a portrait of Innocent X. by Velasquez. 

"1 know that it is necessary to exercise great prudence in the choice best 
adapted to one's talent, for, by reason of the many opportunities one has, it is as 
easy to retrograde as to obtain good results. 1 say this because I am discouraged 
by seeing how little it profits many among the painters, who pass entire months in 
these galleries, copying the great masters, and who afterwards do not know how to 
draw a face from memory." 

It was at Rome that the pov/ers of this child of Catalonia began to stir in their 
sheath, "and that," says M. Gautier, "more by the blooming of his natural gifts 
than by the direct influence of the great masters whom the world goes to admire 
and copies on its knees. Don't let us in the least blame this worship, but it is good 
sometimes to follow the bent of our own nature, and to see with one's own eyes." 

Fortuny was susceptible to but was not enslaved by these enthroned dynasties 
of art set up through centuries of noble endeavor. He must take sunlight on his own 
retina, and his art, as he breathed the airs of the Albanian mountains, through the 
valves of his own life. He maintained to the last chapter of his earthly career a 
certain freedom of faith and valor of conviction that gave to his personality a name- 
less charm. After a stay of seven months he sent two pictures from his easel to M. 
Pedro Bover, of Reus, one showing a view of the Tiber, with the castle of St. Angelo 
in the distance; the other, "Nereides sur un lac," at the fringe of a forest. He 
designed the funds secured from the sale of these to go to his grandfather. The old 
man wore out his heart in yearning for the child who had been his comrade as well 
as his kinsman, and died on the 19th of March, 1859, just a year after his grandson 
arrived in Rome and as the latter was about to express to him a " Saint Mariano." 

When war was declared between Spain and Morocco, the Town Council of 
Barcelona proposed to Fortuny to accompany the army to Africa to make studies and 
paint souvenirs of the campaign. He accepted their terms and left by the first 
steamer. He carried letters of presentation to the commander-in-chief, O'Donnell, 
and to Generals Ros d'Olano and Prim and a number of other eminent persons. He 
reached Tetuan in February in company with M. Escriu, who became later on his 
brother-in-law. The letters of introduction were of small account ; he suffered 
severe hardships, going often hungry and sleeping upon the ground. On the nth 
of March the battle of Samsa was fought. Fortuny pressing to the front, a ball 
spurted the dust at his feet. "Ah!" said a soldier, "that was meant for the 
painter," but the painter was intent on business and paid scant heed to danger. 
On the 23d the bloody conflict of Wad-Ras came on, the Spaniards gaining a decisive 
victory. Throughout these experiences the artist was enlarging his world, popu- 
lating his brain, working incessantly, making sketches in oil and water color, 

figures massed and single, Arabs, soldiers, his fellow countrymen the Catalans, Jews, 
and landscapes. On the 23d of April he started with his friend for Madrid, which 
they reached at the same hour as the staff of the army of Africa. He was intro- 
duced at once by M. Augustin Rigalt to M. Federico Madrazo, who, seven years 
afterward, gave him his daughter Cecilia in marriage. His studies of the war were 
exhibited publicly in Barcelona and created general admiration. The Town Council 
sent an address to the governor of the province, which revealed a pride and solicitude 
worthy of the grandfather who was asleep in his grave at Reus. 

"The painter Fortuny has happily returned from Africa, where he collected, 
at the cost of great danger, and with a perseverance and zeal worthy of all praise, 
subjects of the highest interest, which he will doubtless use in the work the Town 
Council has entrusted to him. Your Excellency has seen his portfolios of sketches, 
souvenirs, and impressions, and will understand the great effect these drawings, so 
simple in appearance, will one day produce. So exactly do they show us the places 
where our heroic army has accomplished great deeds of arms ; also the dress, char- 
acter, and manners of our adversaries in this African war. 

"Fortuny to this time has well done his honorable task, but this is not all. 
In order that the young painter may finish his noble work, for the glory and honor 
of his country, it is necessary his genius should feed upon, strengthen itself, and 
grow prolific by study of the great masters. The Town Council feels that it is need- 
ful that he should visit Paris, Munich, Berlin, Brussels, Milan, and Florence, to the 
end that, throwing a rapid coup d'oeil on their museums and artistic monuments, he 
can better reconcile with the principles of art his conceptions, as yet crude. A trip 
of six or eight weeks, with a companion so imbued with passion for the beauties of 
art, will suffice to accomplish what the Town Council proposes." 

This plan was only realized in part. He studied in Paris, the Museum at 
Versailles, and later in that of Florence. His progress was rapid and brilliant. At 
Paris he frequently saw Meissonier, who was greatly drawn to him, for whom he 
in turn cherished the sincerest admiration, whose influence over him was one of 
maturing force. He painted his portrait, which afterward came into the possession 
of Mr. Stewart. The figure could but be fine; the pose is striking and martial, 
bending backward to show every line of the magnificent body, which wears a 
large curved sabre. By action of the Town Council Fortuny was requested to make 
a second visit to Africa to reimpress his mind with the locale and scenes of the 
battle of Tetuan. 

The war between Spain and Morocco cut out for him, as with a sabre stroke, 
his future career. He was then twenty-three years of age, thick-set, of powerful 
build, mercurial temperament, taciturn, resolute, and drilled to exertion. His tarrying 
in the East, which lasted from five to six months, was a revelation and a revel. He 
had never seen such light, such feasts of color, such figure compositions. It was 

here that he courted the sun and won him to the disclosure of his radiant mysteries. 
When the Emperor of Morocco arrived with his dashing suit to sign the treaty of 
peace, Fortuny was like a man driven to fever by the greatness of his opportunities. 
His hand flew over the pages of his note-book with lightning celerity. 

What he was sent to Algiers to do he never really did, but he did other things 
of far greater import. While the commission of the Academy of Barcelona remained 
half finished, and was in that state on his studio wall when he died, he filled his 
mind with a series of magnificent themes, which in after years came to a perfect 
realization under his brush. Among these we find the stalls of the Moorish carpet 
sellers filled with the tumult of barter, the weary old Arabs sitting in the sun, and 
the pensive, sombre faces of snake charmers. 

He addressed himself to etching and engraving, varying his eye with water 
colors of such virility as to rival works in oil. Fortuny's handicraft was something 
remarkable. He modeled splendid vases and decorated them with the shimmering 
tones of Hispano-Moresque; he wrought in metals, inlaying them with delicate 
designs of gold; he forged a famous sword with an ivory hilt, worthy of the 
battle-belt of a Moorish king. In the autumn of 1866 he went again to Paris and 
found friends in Rico, Ferrandez, and Zamacois. The last introduced him to 
M. Goupil, who at once gave recognition to his talent, and started for him a credit of 
24,000 francs per year. He returned to Madrid to arrange for his nuptials with the 
daughter of M. Madrazo. May, 1868, brought him again to Rome. Here he 
steadily devoted himself to his great theme, "A Spanish Marriage." In this canvas 
and one other, "The Choice of a Model," Fortuny's gifts found their highest mani- 
festation. Great men have sunbursts of expressional power, when talent is exalted 
into genius and when genius glows with the afflatus of an unearthly inspiration. 
Such was Delacroix's "Centaur Training the Young Achilles," Rousseau's " Le 
Givre," and Millet's "Sheepfold by Moonlight." 

In 1870 Fortuny went to Granada to live, and installed himself at the Fonda 
de los Siete Suelos, on the same hill as the Alhambra, a short walk from the ancient 
palace of the Moorish kings. The quiet of the place, which had so charmed Henri 
Regnault, fascinated him. He counted the years spent there the sunniest of his life, 
writing to M. Simonetti : 

" Figure to yourself the Villa Borghese on the summit of a mountain, sur- 
rounded by Moorish towns, and in the midst the most beautiful Arab palace, the 
elegance and ingenuity of ornament so great that the walls seem to be covered with 
guipure lace ! No suffering from heat, and one lives with such freedom that you 
might believe you were at home." 

As indicative of the conscientious method through which Fortuny sought 
historical values for his easel, as well as the refreshment he perpetually brought to 
his eye, both in form and color, several letters are here opened. 

To his comrade, M. Rico : 

Granada, November 25, 1870. 

Dear Martin : I am deligiited to learn that you fee! inclined to come here. I 
think we can spend the winter profitably. We can paint courtyards and gypsies, 
when we please. Don't trouble yourself about Zamacois. He will not come, and 
if he did come he would not stay two weeks in Granada. You know his nature. 
This quiet and want of bustle would not suit him. I will trouble you to ask at the 
Escurial Library for an Asiatic manuscript of the year 1400, on the game of chess ; it 
is illuminated with miniatures, certainly Italian ; see if it contains costumes, arms, 
and other details suitable for paintings ; in case it should 1 will have copies made for a 

small picture I intend to make. 



He was destined never again to meet Zamacois, who died suddenly from a 
seizure of angina pectoris. 

Granada, March, 1871. 
^ Fonda de los Siete Suelos. 

A Monsieur le Baron Davillier. 

My Dear Friend: I am happy that nothing has happened to you in the midst 
of such misfortunes. 1 need not tell you how anxious I have been during the whole 
war in thinking of you ; am hardly at ease now, for lo ! the Commune again makes 
me tremble for you. As for me, I have some pictures begun, and many planned. 
Granada is an inexhaustible mine ; but you know it and I will not dwell on it. I 
have a picture under way, and I hope it will turn out well, but it will be by making 
use of you for documents and details ; no one at Paris can aid me better in this 
matter than you. 

In regard to objects of art which I have met with, I will especially mention a 
very fine manuscript of the fifteenth century, ornamented with many well-preserved 
miniatures, and of the best style, with the arms and portrait of the owner, etc. I 
will have photographs of it made, and send them to you, that you may give me 
your opinion about it. I have some books on fencing, for Beaumont, and a curious 
note relating to arms copied from a paper of the fourteenth century. 

Yours, Fortuny. 

After a long fight for daily bread, Fortuny surprised Fortune and swiftly 
turned into an Oriental prince, surrounded by masses of treasure, brilliant stuffs, 
Arabian war implements, glasses from Murano, vases from Pekin, malachite slabs 
resting on gilded satyrs, variegated marbles, and old tankards. There were four 
prime factors in the sum of Fortuny 's life — Gavarni, the war in Morocco, Cecilia de 
Madrazo, and his blessed patron, Mr. William H. Stewart. Under these four captions 
one could write his entire history. 

In the autumn of 1873 Fortuny changed his residence from the small house in 
the Via Gregoriana to a villa with surrounding gardens in the suburbs of the city. 
His studio adjoining offered space for the display of splendid fabrics, his faiences with 
sheens of gold, his ancient arms, and all his wealth of art objects, bronzes, and precious 
inlaid metals. A friend tells us "that he was petted and flattered by everybody." 

Notwithstanding that, he was, as he said, "worried without knowing why." Was it 
a presentiment ? 

A projected visit to London occurred the first of June, and was prolific of 
inspirations. Here he met Millais, who welcomed him most cordially and exacted a 
promise of his return the following year. " 1 have so many souvenirs in my head, it 
will take me months to think it all out," he said. He left Paris for Rome, June 15th, 
accompanied to the Lyons station by his brother-in-law, Raymundo, and Baron 
Davillier, who embraced him, far from thinking that they should never see his face 
again. The fatal fever from which he suffered in 1869, returned with complications. 
He died November 21, 1874, at six o'clock in the evening, suffocated by vomiting 
blood. The personality of Fortuny has won a widening recognition^ achieving a 
renown that must forever place him in front of the leading line of the artists of his 
century. Out of the large group of those who have done him honor, we choose a 
few voices to form a symposium upon his character and his art. 

The Baron Davillier speaks : " Fortuny was above middle height, robust in 
appearance ; the frankness and truthfulness of his character were reflected in his 
face, which was both handsome and sympathetic. He had a horror of etiquette 
and ceremony, and his natural timidity made him reserved, one might almost say 
a little rough, with those whom he knew not intimately, showing himself, on the 
contrary, very genial with those he loved, avoiding trivial talk and giving a serious 
turn to conversation. Surrounded by numerous flatterers, he distinguished, with 
extraordinary tact, true and disinterested friends from egotists, speculators, and false 
brothers in art. As for him, he was the truest and most devoted friend a man 
could find ; he despised envy and never descended to a feeling so base. 

" Fortuny had for music a very correct taste. Mozart and Beethoven were the 
masters he most admired. He loved reading much, especially the Latin historians 
and poets. His passion for curiosities is known. His collection, had he lived, 
would soon have become one of the most remarkable in Europe. His manual 
dexterity was marvelous, as the Moorish sword forged by him shows, of which the 
handle, inlaid with silver and carved in ivory, equals the most beautiful ancient 
work. I have not the knowledge necessary to judge of the talent of Fortuny. 
Every one knows that his individuality was very marked. If he had many imitators, 
it can be said he never sought to imitate any one." 

We listen to M. Theophile Gautier in his official journal of May, 1870 : 
"The name which has been oftenest spoken for the past four months in the world 
of art is surely that of Fortuny. One question never failed, when artists and 
amateurs met — ' Have you seen Fortuny's paintings ? ' For Fortuny is a painter so 
marvelously original, of finished talent, sure of himself, although the artist was barely 
within the age of a competitor for the Prix de Rome. The traveled artists, and the 
students who came back from the Villa Medici, speak most highly of a young man 

admirably gifted, whom they consider of great force, woriting at Rome in a fantastic 
way, beyond all influence of schools. But the foreign name they mentioned, unsup- 
ported by any work, was not remembered. The 'Spanish Marriage,' the 'Serpent 
Charmer' — easel paintings; the 'Carpet Seller in Morocco,' the 'Cafe of the 
Swallows,' 'The Kief — water colors, of a strength of tone that compete with oil, 
give an incontestable value to the name of Fortuny, and prove that the reports 
about him have not at all been exaggerated." 

Prof. John C. Van Dyke, in an able review of this collection, prominently 
marks Fortuny : "There be artists who have harped on one note their life long, but 
Fortuny was not one of them. His was not a labored versatility, but a spontaneous 
and natural outburst. What others did by virtue of stubborn will, he apparently did 
with the strength and ease of genius. And how irresistible his few effective brush- 
strokes raise in us the sense and feeling of power! One night a dispute arose among 
some friends as to the position of a certain square in a Spanish city. Fortuny took 
a stick, wrapped around the end of it some frayed linen, mixed some ink and water 
together in a saucer, and upon some ordinary wrapping-paper drew the square, 
buildings, people, sky, air, and all ; and to-day it hangs in Mr. Stewart's gallery as 
effective a 'black and white' as one would care to look upon." 

M. Henri Regnault : "I have seen some of Fortuny's studies, which are 
prodigies of color and bold painting. Ah ! what a painter that boy is ! 1 have 
also seen two ravishing eaux-fortes by him. His pupil, Simonetti, who works in 
his studio, has shown me some charming things now under way. Two fine fel- 
lows, and how well they get on ! What skill — how pleasing in color — what true 
genius — what spirit in the touch ! 

"Day before yesterday I passed the whole day with Fortuny, and that has 
broken my arms and legs — he is wonderful, that fellow ! What marvels are in his 
house ! He is master of us all. If you could see the two or three pictures he is now 
finishing, and the water colors he has recently completed ! ! ! It is that which 
disgusts me with mine — oh, Fortuny ! I can't sleep for you ! I am not proud ; 
Fortuny makes me pale with fear. I can no longer see what 1 have done or what 
I am doing. Look how a water color should be painted — what color, what charm, 
what drawing ! Long live Spain — long live the East — long live Fortuny — immortality 
for Fortuny ! " 

M. Thomas Couture : " Oh, the beautiful things. I dreamed of them all night. 
They are the life, the light, the budding of spring, the colors with which God has 
painted the flowers. It is not painting, it is not work, it is not human. All sparkles 
with sunshine and genius ; all is transformed by a magic prism. The vulgar becomes 
poetic, and satire amiable." 

M. Charles Yriarte : "In his genre he was the head of a school. Endowed 
with a profound talent for manipulation, he created the ^cole de la viain (school of 

the hand). His science, united with a certain charm to which every one yielded ; 
his love of light, his worship of the sun, and a unique something in the choice, the 
idea, and the rendering of his subjects, made for him a reputation which was legiti- 
mate. Fortuny has many imitators, but the majority of them fail to represent in 
their works, as he did, the character — the soul of things." 

We pause for a moment ere we give audience to the voice of one who did 
more to shape the triumphant course of Fortuny than any other, whose cheer and 
strengthening sympathy passed like a sea breeze through the lungs of a tired man, 
whose tact and steadfast friendship braced the ambitions and gave fresh impulses to 
the ideals of this magician of art. We refer to Mr. William H. Stewart, of Phila- 
delphia, the first American patron of Fortuny. We prelude his testimony with a 
letter which reveals his relations with the rising young men of his time. This 
letter was penned after Mr. Stewart himself had passed into the silence of the eter- 
nities. It is from M. Martin Rico to M. Montaignac, of Paris, the distinguished 
connoisseur : 

Dear Friend : It was about 1867 that I made the acquaintance of Mr. Stewart. 
He immediately ordered two landscapes of me, although I was then absolutely 
unknown. Since that time, whenever I returned from my travels, the first visit I 
received was from him and from my friend Madrazo, the two persons who took the 
deepest interest in me. 

Although people may say that 1 am not disinterested in the matter, 1 take great 
pleasure in stating that I have never known a connoisseur more intelligent than Mr. 
Stewart and more untiring in seeking good pictures without ever considering the 
price. He had great influence at that time for the Spanish painters. The dealers 
hesitated in the selection of artists and the price to pay them, and it was he, with his 
delicate taste and correct eye, who discovered painters and interested himself in them. 

He certainly was the greatest power at that moment in the artistic market 
of Paris. 

1 lost in Mr. Stewart a friend, a protector, and almost a father. He made his 
house ours, and 1 owe my position in great part to him. His greatest pleasure was 
the society of artists, and what I say for myself may be said also for Fortuny, Madrazo, 
Zamacois, and many others. He was the type of the most perfect caballero whom I 
have ever known, and you need only look at the collection of letters which the artists 
have written to him to be convinced of this. His gallery of pictures will show the 
world more than I can say. 

Mr. Stewart, writing to Baron Davillier, says : "1 heard of Mariano Fortuny 
for the first time in January, 1868, through Edward Zamacois, the much lamented 
and talented artist, who died at Madrid, January 12, 1871, at the early age of 

"He it was who took me to the Messrs. Goupil & Co., No. 9 Rue Chaptral, 
Paris, to see some ten very fine water colors, and pen-and-ink drawings, just 
received from Rome, with Fortuny's signature. Four of these were immediately 
secured by me at a very modest price, and two or three months later Zamacois 

brought me word from these dealers that they had an oil painting by Fortuny, and 
1 must at once go with him to see it. 

"We started on the instant, and found, at the Rue Chaptral, the 'Fantasia 
Arabe.' My companion went into ecstasies, calling it 'a pearl,' 'jewels,' etc., at 
the same time whispering to me to buy it, and not to let it slip at any price. The 
sum named was comparatively trifling, and this fine work became mine. 

"I then determined to visit Rome and make the acquaintance of Fortuny, 
and in December, 1868, induced Zamaco'i's, our common friend, to join me, telegraph- 
ing the artist in advance to engage rooms for us. I took with me a little painting 
by Meissonier, entitled 'Suite d'un Jeu des Cartes,' as Fortuny had requested his 
brother-in-law, Madrazo, I should do, having seen, up to that time, only photographs 
of this great master's works. 

"On our arrival in the Eternal City we found him awaiting us at the railway 
depot, and were then conducted to the apartments he had engaged for us on the 
Corso, not far from his own residence. His reception of me was extremely cordial, 
frank, and open, for which, doubtless, I was indebted to Zamaco'i's, of whom he was 
very fond. He soon took me into his intimate friendship, which terminated only 
with his death. 

" In person, Fortuny was the beau ideal of an artist, in the full vigor of youth, 
with the build and strength of an athlete, and rather above the medium height. His 
head, perhaps, was a little too large, but highly intellectual, and covered with a 
profusion of dark-brown curly hair, and his eyes were a clear violet color, having 
a most anxious, inquiring expression. In manner he was quiet and serious, but of 
an affectionate, gentle, and most generous nature. Simply because I had complied 
with his modest request, in taking with me to Rome the little Meissonier painting 
mentioned above, he painted for me an aquarelle, called 'An Arab Street,' dedicated 
it to me as his friend, and it is now considered one of the finest gems in my collec- 
tion. Henri Regnault served as a model for its principal and central figure. He 
obtained for me also another beautiful water color, which was nearly finished and 
on his easel, having been painted for d'Epinay, the French sculptor. This, and the 
'Arab Street,' I carried back in my trunk to Paris, and would have been pleased 
to have taken everything he had. 

" The ' Vicaria,' or ' Spanish Marriage,' was begun. I was not able to 
get it, as he was under contract to the Goupils, but he promised to finish the 
'Academicians Choosing a Model,' which I gladly accepted in its stead, and have 
congratulated myself ever since on its acquisition. 

"Some of the incidents of our stay in Rome will tend to prove the admiration 
in which he was held by those eminent artists, Zamaco'i's and Regnault. The latter 
asked him why he never exhibited in the Paris Annual Salon, and he replied : ' I 
have never anything worth the showing, and I am not a Frenchman ; but why don't 

you?' 'I have nothing,' answered Regnault. 'Then,' said Fortuny, 'go and ask 
d'Epinay for the head you gave him ; it is excellent. You can add some canvas, 
and make a capital picture.' 

" Regnault took his advice, got the head and carried it to Spain, and the result 
was the now celebrated painting, known as 'Salome,' which he exhibited the 
following year, with his portrait of General Prim. 

"One day, while we were in his studio watching him at work, he asked 
ZamacoTs to paint something for him as a souvenir of his visit. ZamacoTs began at 
once on a small panel the figure of 'Arlequino,' Fortuny's favorite man model, and 
after working three or four hours and scratching out as many times, he gave up in 
despair, threw the little board into a corner, and said to me: 'Don Guillermo, no 
ptiedo mas!' (I cannot do any more.) We went into the garden, and Zamacois 
exclaimed : ' 1 can now breathe freely, but 1 cannot do so where Mariano paints ! 
He absorbs all the light, color, and air ; in fact, he is enough to disgust one with one's 
own work, for he is the only one who can paint ! ' 

"On this same garden opened the studios of Moragas and the Duchess Cas- 
teglione Colonna. The latter, known in art circles as Marcello, the sculptress, professed 
the greatest admiration for Fortuny and profited largely by her proximity to his studio 
and the advice given therein. This may be seen in her bronze statue of a 'Fury,' 
under the main stairway of the Paris Opera House. 

"As stated by Davillier, in the spring of 1870 Fortuny came to the French 
capital, and installed himself and family in the Maison Valin, on the Champs Elysees. 
Here he finished the 'Vicaria,' and his three most important aquarelles, 'The Reader,' 
'The Turkish Carpet Dealer,' and the 'Torrero.' While at work on the 'Vicaria,' the 
artist Meissonier dropped in to see him, just as he was in need of a suitable model 
for a cavalry officer, whom he wished to introduce into the picture. Hearing of his 
want, the great French artist said: 'I am the only man who has the proper legs for 
the character you need, and if you will come out to Poissy I will serve as your 

" Fortuny accepted, went to Poissy, and painted to the life this wonderful man. 
I am the happy possessor of this remarkable and curious portrait of Meissonier by 
Fortuny, through the generosity of his widow, who presented it to me after her 
husband's death. The fact that Meissonier served as a model to the younger painter 
reveals the former's admiration, and that he was seriously impressed by this great 
genius, cannot be doubted. 

" A strange and sudden death occurred at the Maison Valin while Fortuny was 
staying there. Canaveral, a friend of his, came from Spain with about one hundred 
old paintings and some drawings, and went to the same house. Fortuny, assisted 
by Zamacois and Rico, endeavored to clean and arrange these paintings for exhi- 
bition, so that they might be sold for the benefit of his friend, but for a fortnight no 

purchaser appeared. At last a well-known dealer called, and fell dead while looking 
at the collection, and poor Canaveral failed to effect any sales. If I had not bought 
from him a very beautiful aquarelle, painted by our artist, and doubtless a present to 
his old friend, Canaveral would have been without the means to return home with 
his pictures. 

"At that time I was residing in the Avenue d'Jena, and I shall never forget the 
day of Victor Noir's burial. He had been killed a few days before by Prince Pierre 
Bonaparte, at Auteuil. It seemed as if the entire working population of Paris had 
turned out, dressed in clean blouses, and armed with implements of their different 
trades, to do honor to the dead, or mischief to the living who might oppose their 
demonstration. I started from home about ten in the morning, to go, with Zamacois 
and Fortuny, on a visit to Meissonier, at Poissy. We met this crowd of ill-disposed 
operatives marching toward Neuilly, the residence of the mother of the deceased. 
Returning to Paris at 4.30 p.m., we parted with Zamacois at the St. Lazare station, 
and Fortuny and 1, taking a cab together, started for our homes, but on attempting 
to cross the Champs Elysees, near the Palais d'lndustrie, we were prevented by a 
large body of cavalry and artillery which occupied the space from the Rond Point 
to the Place de la Concorde. 

" Facing this military mass was another, of nearly 100,000 blouses, filling the 
Avenue des Champs Elysees as far as the Arc de Triomphe, and far beyond, into 
the Avenue de la Grande Armee. Arm in arm they came marching towards the 
troops, singing the Marseillaise, and headed by Henri Rochefort, who was riding 
in a cab. It appears that he had fainted once or twice during the day, from excite- 
ment or from fear of failure in his undertaking, which was to conduct the crowd 
past the Tuileries Palace. 

"We were, of course, obliged to make a great detour, in order to reach 
our homes. This was the beginning of the end of the Second Empire, which was 
overthrown on the 4th of September following. 

" About this time my wife, being anxious to have a portrait of me by Fortuny, 
asked him to paint one. He immediately said he would if she would let him have 
his painting of the ' Antiquary.' Taking this with him, he obtained a photograph 
of me, and a few days later returned the painting with my portrait introduced, which 
is considered by artists and friends to be a most striking likeness. This same picture 
of the ' Antiquary ' he had given, a year or two previous, to Capo Bianchi, the dealer 
in Rome, in exchange for an Arab gun and a broken Venetian glass, these articles 
being worth about 200 francs. 

" Madrazo and I have often remarked that what seemed to strike strangers, on 
entering Fortuny's studio, was himself, more than his work. The living picture was 
really interesting : one could not fail to be impressed by that fine intellectual head, 
with its regular but expressive features ; his appearance of full, vigorous health, and his 

becoming, careless dress. His wife, in the bloom of her youth and beauty, seated 
by his side and mending an old piece of tapestry while he painted, lent a charm 
to the picture, well calculated to draw one's first glances from even his brilliant 

"Many of his evenings were passed at our house. He was fond of music 
and conversation, to both of which he was an attentive listener, though preferring 
often to be drawing, in which he frequently indulged when with us. He would 
sometimes take away with him a photographic portrait of some head or person 
which happened to strike his fancy, and copy it most exactly in India ink or sepia. 
In this way I have the likeness of one Amos Foster, known at Torresdale, Philadel- 
phia, as ' Bos ' — copied so closely by Fortuny that it is difficult to distinguish it 
from the photograph. 

"It was about this time that the 'Vicaria' was finished and upon its easel. 
One day a gentleman called and, after admiring the picture greatly, said he would 
like to own something by the same artist. Messrs. Goyena and Madrazo being 
present, acted as interpreters, as Fortuny could not then speak French, and replied 
that he could not promise, as he was under contract to the Goupils. The visitor, 
expressing much regret at this, concluded by giving Fortuny carte blanche to paint 
whatever he pleased for him without regard to price, handed his card to Goyena, 
and departed. Goyena read aloud his card : 

" ' Monsieur Duglairy, 

" ' Chef du Caf^ Anglais.' 

"Fortuny received it as a pleasantry, and would not believe the fact until he 
had read the card himself The three friends, however, determined to visit this 
culinary artist and breakfast at his celebrated cafe the following day. When the 
hour arrived they entered the dining-rooms and said they preferred giving their 
orders to the chef, who shortly appeared. Recognizing the trio, he made many 
apologies for the manner in which his art suffered, owing to the use of mineral 
coal in the economic cooking-ranges now in use, but said he would do his best. 
He gave them indeed a splendid repast, after which he invited them to visit his 
Japanese collection, valued by experts at more than one million francs. And this man 
is the head cook, and one of the present proprietors of the Cafe Anglais ! 

" Fortuny left Paris late in the spring for Spain, and established himself and 
family in the Alhambra at Granada, in company with Rico and Ricardo Madrazo. 
Here he started work on some of his finest inspirations. Little dreaming that we 
should be separated from Fortuny for so long a time by the Franco-Prussian War, 
we started for Trouvillc, where we spent the months of July, August, September, 
and part of October. The Prussian lines, however, were extending in every direc- 
tion and encompassing the French, so I deemed it prudent to take my family to 

Torquay, England, where we passed nearly six months agreeably, occasionally 
hearing from Fortuny and Rico through Zamacois and Don Federico Madrazo, both 
of whom resided in Madrid. 

"On the i2th of January, 1871, Zamacois died in Madrid, and the sad news 
was announced to us by a letter from his widow, dated three days later. 

" Immediately after the surrender of Paris I went over with Saintin, a French 
artist, to the conquered capital for the purpose of looking after my affairs, and three 
or four days after our arrival the reign of the Commune began. We remained, 
however, three weeks or more, until it became too hot for us, and then persuaded 
Madrazo — who had passed through the siege, serving manfully in the American 
Ambulance — to return to England with us, and in April we all moved to London. 
A week later Goupil & Co., who were established in the English metropolis, sent 
me word that they had received from Granada three paintings by Fortuny and two 
by Rico. We went to see them, and I bought two of Fortuny's and one of Rico's 

"When the Commune was put down we returned to France, entering Paris 
two days after the Versailles or government troops took possession, and were in 
time to witness the Tuileries, the H6tel de Ville, the Treasury, the Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, and other buildings, still burning, and smouldering in ruins. 

"In the fall of 1871, during my absence in the United States, Fortuny sent two 
oil paintings to the Goupils. They were bought by MacLean, of London, who, failing 
to dispose of them without loss in England, returned them to Goupil for sale, where 
I found them on my return, and at once purchased both. It was evident that the 
British public did not appreciate Fortuny, nor had the French learned full confidence 
in his genius, till after his third visit to Paris, in 1873. As I was again absent in 
America at this time, I had not the pleasure of seeing him until the spring of 1874. 

"During his stay at the Alhambra he worked hard, and in the numerous letters 
I received from him while there, he expressed the greatest enjoyment in his occupa- 
tions, and in the beauty, the quiet, and the climate of Granada. At times he sent me 
photographs, and, again, pen-and-ink drawings of what he had done or was doing. 
In this way I was able to order the paintings owned by the Honorable Mr. A. E. Borie, 
and Mr. H. W. Gibson, of Philadelphia. Before leaving Granada for Rome, he sent 
a beautiful little oil painting of a fruit-stall, painted at the Alhambra, in which he 
introduced his wife and children, as a souvenir to Mrs. Stewart. 

"From Rome he continued his intimate correspondence with me, all his letters 
containing beautiful sketches and drawings, which I have preserved most carefully 
as marvels of art. 

"In 1874, as stated above, he came again to Paris, bringing with him the 
'Academicians Choosing a Model,' which he painted for me; the 'Poet's Garden,' 
bought by Mr. Heeren ; 'An Arab Horseman,' and a 'Torso,' for Mr. Errazu ; 'A 

Large Arab,' with a wonderful background of carpets ; 'A Lady in a Garden' ; 'The 
Cochinos,' a study of flowers, and the 'Roman Carnival.' The last three he took 
back to Italy, intending to keep them for himself During this last visit 1 saw a 
great deal of him, and he left us, to return to Rome, in good spirits, saying that he 
was going to paint to please himself and not the dealers. He complained, however, 
of his digestion, and was obliged to be very careful in his diet, but none of his 
friends gave the slightest thought to his complaint. 

"On Sunday, the 22d of November, 1874, Madrazo, Rico, and Saintin came 
to breakfast with me. After we had finished, Madrazo told us he had received a 
telegram the night previous, announcing Fortuny's illness, and asking him to 
proceed to Rome immediately, but as the dispatch came too late he was unable to 
take the express train until that same Sunday evening. We all concluded Fortuny's 
case was desperate, and could only hope for the best. 

"They left me, but at six in the evening Rico returned, sobbing, scarcely able 
to utter the words, ' He is dead.' 

"The truth is, he died before the first dispatch was sent, as the second 
proved, which was sent simply to hasten Madrazo's departure. This was the end 
of one of the best of men and one of the greatest artists of his time." 


"1 Tl 7"E are in the presence of the greatest character draughtsman France has ever 
* * known. His family name, Guillaume Sulpice Chevalier, is lost under his 
famous nom de plume. Born in Paris, 1804; died, 1866. Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor. He played with his pencil in childhood, but had attained his majority when 
he met M. Blaisot, who gave him an order for an album of sketches. In 1824 he went 
to Bordeaux to execute works for the engraver Adam, but soon broke with him, and 
set out for the Pyrenees on a walking tour. At Tarbes he made the acquaintance of 
M. Leden, the Registrar of the Signal Service, who bore him company on many of 
his excursions. He filled his book with peasants in all phases of their life and cos- 
tumes. He returned to Paris in May, 1828, still busy with types, sketching con- 
stantly, but failing to earn money. It was suggested that he should interview Susse, 
the dealer, and exhibit his water colors. Susse was willing to purchase his collection 
on the condition that he should sign them. Seizing a pen, he wrote "Gavarni," and 
from that moment lost his baptismal name. Gradually he gravitated to his real voca- 
tion : caricature, the art of the grotesque for purposes of satire. 

This is preeminently the art of the modern ages. There was small hint of it 
among the ancients, only three papyri of a satirical tendency being known to exist in 
Egyptian archives, and these are more droll than ironical. The Greeks had gifts for 
pictorial parody, as shown in antique vases sketched with burlesque themes ; the 
Romans put the grotesque into plastic expression, as seen in frescoes unearthed at 
Pompeii and Herculaneum ; but the caricaturists of the olden time must be sought for 
rather in the poets and dramatists than among painters and sculptors. Through the 
long dusk of the middle ages any quantity of material was amassed for the study of 
the grotesque, but it was unvitalized, without form, and voiceless. 

The art of pictorial irony was born in the birth-pangs of the Renaissance. It 
is said that the earliest genuine example (1499) is a comic gravure relating to Louis 
XII. and his Italian war. The Reformation in Germany led to a full seeding for 
satirical ephemerae. The prototypes of the cartoons that smirk from the pages of 
Punch and Charivari are the heads of Martin Luther and Alexander VI. In England 
the sixteenth century was innocent of this charge, the only exception being a feeble 
effort to show Mary Stuart as a mermaid. The eighteenth century was preeminently 
the age of caricature, evidenced in the domain of literature as in that of art. Smith, 
Smollett, and Fielding, no less than Hogarth and Gillray, were expert in ironies. In 
the hands of Gillray political caricature became almost epic in majesty of conception, 
breadth of treatment, and far-reaching suggestiveness. An English critic remarks 
"that it is to the works of this man of genius that historians must turn for the 
popular reflection of all the political notabilia of the end of the eighteenth and the 
beginning of the nineteenth century." Spain discovers an artist capable of competing 
with the English group in the works of Francis Goya, which are described by Theo- 
phile Gautier as a mixture of Rembrandt, Watteau, and the comical dreams of Rabelais. 
Champfleury discerns analogies between him and Honore Daumier, the greatest 
caricaturist of modern France. 

Daumier was ideal in carrying a single character through a series of pictures, 
showing with each some fresh travesty ; such were Robert Macaire, Bertrand, and 
Ratapoil. In one he shows the country politician canvassing for votes, seeking, as 
usual, to save the people. Mr. Henry James thus uncovers this admirable page: "A 
sordid but astute peasant, twirling his thumbs on his stomach and looking askance, 
allows the political adviser to urge upon him in a whisper that there is not a minute 
to lose — to lose for action, of course — if he wishes to keep his wife, his house, his field 
his heifer, and his calf. The canny skepticism in the ugly, half-averted face of the 
typical rustic, who considerably suspects his counselor, is indicated by a few masterly 
strokes. This is what the student of Daumier recognizes as his science, or, if the 
word has a better grace, his art. It is what has kept life in his work so long after so 
many of the occasions of it have been swept into darkness." 

Journalism and caricature were often workers in the same field up to 1845, but 

the alliance was uncertain and brief. It became the mission of Charles Philipon, the 
peculiar and emphatic exploiter of comic journalism, to make it lasting. La Carica- 
ture, founded by Philipon in 1831, and suppressed in 1833, was followed by La 
Charivari. It is here that we find Gavarni, who brought modern social caricature, 
in its present guise, to a perfect expressional form. 

The Commune was a forcing process for the production of artists of this school 
who were well endowed with both ability and bitterness. Gavarni ranks foremost 
among these pictorial satirists. The years between 1840 and 1847 m^Y be taken as his 
best period. As a recorder of the manners of his time, he produced work possessing 
the purest qualities, with such seriousness of aim as to insure it permanent place 
and consideration. He was the mate of Balzac; his peer in power and his intimate 
friend. Any effort to pass in review Gavarni's artistic record would be wearisome. 
The following are a few of his examples that have found enthusiastic appreciation : 
"The Impostures of Women in Some Matters of Sentiment," "Dreams," "The 
Muses," "Lessons and Counsels," "The Martyrs," "The Students of Paris," "The 
Terrible Children," "Masks and Visages." 


TT'VERY official honor that can fall at the feet of a great artist in France has fallen 
*-^ to Leon Gerome. He has been a Commander of the Legion since 1878, a 
member of the Institute since 1875, a professor of the Ecole des Beaux Arts since 

The Medal of Honor has been given to him twice. His creations are dis- 
tributed throughout the museums, public galleries, and great private collections of 
the world. He has a cabinet filled with decorations in bronze and gold. G^rdme 
was born in the Haute-Saone, at Vesoul, on the nth day of May, 1824. 

He won his first medal in the Salon of 1847 by "The Fighting Cocks.'" 
While he was executing this picture he said to Delaroche : " I try to paint honestly, 
clinging to nature, but 1 am still unskillful ; it is flat and thin." "Yes," his master 
responded, "you are right, but there are originality and style. You will do better 
later ; in the meantime do not be anxious ; exhibit your picture — exhibit it. It will 
do you honor." His picture was "skied." Nevertheless the near-sighted Gautier 
managed to discover the "Cock Fight," and the day following wrote in the columns 
of La Presse : ' ' Let us mark with white this lucky year, for unto us a painter is 

horn. He is called Gerome. I tell you his name to-day, and to-morrow it will be 

He was the pupil of Delaroche, whom he followed to Rome half a century 
ago. He visited Russia and Egypt, finding in the latter a wealth of suggestion for 
his brush. It was not in the studies of his first visit to Egypt that he disclosed his 
real power. These are superficially captivating and of easy translation through the 
average conventional keys found in Orientalism. Edmond About was not astray 
concerning this period of Gerome's work when he said : "His views in Egypt are 
interesting, apart from the merit of execution, which is little. One finds in them 
neither a very profound study of form, nor a very active feeling of strength, nor a 
very passionate love of color." The public differed from About's judgment, and 
crowded to see these productions. It was at this time that Gerome hung his 
"Duel After a Masked Ball." Few pictures have become so familiar to the popular 
eye. The artist has coldly taken his theme and rendered it with fearful force. He 
reveals the weight of the invisible tiger of remorse already bending the shoulders 
of the victor as he goes away into the ghastly dawn. The central figure of the 
lifeless Pierrot, the victim of that encounter, is beyond criticism. The man has 
not swooned; he is not dying — he is dead. The " Death of Cassar" might be placed 
as a pendant to the "Duel." It has been said that in Gerome's initial draft for this 
canvas the body of Caesar, lying prostrate before the statue of Pompey, was the only 
figure in the deserted hall, while bloody footprints, intermingled and confused, 
leading toward the door, alone told of the flight of the murderers. Should this 
gossip be true the artist marred his tragic story by massing gesticulating, fleeing 
senators in the background, and spoiled the stern simplicity of his original conception. 
Art may be greater in what it suggests than in what it plainly tells. 

Gerome exhibited in 1855 " Le Siecle d'Auguste." He seeks to embrace in 
one vast canvas the reign of Augustus, which was the culmination of pagan history. 
From this apex, civilization slowly declines into the deepening shadows of the middle 
ages. Alfred Tanouarn, in i860, thus paragraphs the picture : "Augustus is on his 
throne, overlooking the scene. Near him is stationed a young man virile in form, 
a symbolic image of the genius of Rome. At the right of the prince are the political 
notabilities of the epoch, on his left the artists and poets. Farther away, upon the 
lower steps of the temple, lies the body of the assassinated Cassar, before which 
Cassius and Brutus are standing erect, the former holding a dagger ; opposite, the 
dead bodies of Cleopatra and Antony are thrown upon each other ; below, on both 
sides, the conquered people seem to be adoring the majesty of triumphant Rome. 
Finally are seen the infant Jesus, Mary, and Joseph — a mystic group that an angel 
covers with its wings. This is an intermediate work between history and allegory." 
It is manifest that the artist's purpose was to show the power by which revolutions 
were to turn the world through the gates of new horizons ; the power was the 

Christ-child shielded by wings. This painting gained for Gerome the red ribbon. 
Soon after he started again for Egypt. 

Writing to a friend, he says : "Probably among my ancestors a Bohemian 
must have slipped in, for 1 have a nomadic tendency and the bump of locomotion." 
He saw Egypt with fresh eyes and matured mind. When we study the output of 
this second journey into the Nile valley, we are conscious of coming face to face 
with history, tabulated with rare precision and strength. At the close of the Salon 
of 1874 he obtained the Grand Medal and touched a prime which has since simply 
refused to wane. In the Universal Exhibition at Paris in 1878, Gerome uncovered 
his hand as a sculptor. His " Combat of the Gladiators " obtained wide recognition 
and emphatic praise. It is said that when he has "failed to find any detail of armor 
or costume that was necessary to finish his work he would leave the Boulevard de 
Clichy for the Naples Museum, make sketches there of what he desired, and return- 
ing to his atelier by the express train, continue his labor and reinstall himself before 
his group in clay, that had not hardened during this rapid journey to Italy." 

Fifteen years ago it was the privilege of the writer to meet him in his splendid 
studio. The picture known as " The Two Majesties" was on an easel. A lion with 
lifted front, from a projecting rock, across leagues of landscape, calmly faced the 
rising sun. It was impossible to restrain the inward whisper: " Here are not two, 
but three majesties — the lion, the sun, and Gerome ; the last having on his brow 
the flash of a triple crown." 


T^HIS artist recalls the note struck by Alfred Parsons in English landscape work. 
* He has produced portraits of quiet charm and attained significant regard from 
connoisseurs. He was born in Southampton, 1850. First studied in the South- 
ampton and then at the South Kensington art schools, subsequently in the ficole 
des Beaux Arts. Carolus Duran was his master. He is a member of the Institute 
of Painters in Water Color, and was made an A. R. A. in 1883. He is repre- 
sented here by an interesting example in black and white, "The War in the East." 


"IX 7"E confront a passionate lover of art in Henri Harpignies. His birthplace was 
" ' Valenciennes ; his advent July 28, 1819. Equally in oil and water colors 
he has taken highest rank. He studied with Achard, visited Italy, and made his 
manners to the Salon in 1853, since which date he has exhibited regularly. His 
" Evening in the Roman Campagna " received a medal in 1866, which was so 
cordially granted that it repaired somewhat the neglect of the year preceding. This 
picture is at the Luxembourg. He was medaled in 1868 and 1869 ; second class, 
1878 ; Legion of Honor, 1875 ; Officer, 1883. Harpignies came of a wealthy family 
of merchants, who restrained his tendency to art. He was twenty-seven years old 
when he appeared in the studio of Achard, who was the dignified embodiment of 
academic methods. Upon a certain occasion, after searching far for picturesque 
views, both found themselves in the magnificent valley of Cremieux. Achard told 
his pupil that he did not care to have him undertake a number of studies ; that two 
would be sufficient — an effect of growing day and another of evening lights. Har- 
pignies began, and had one well advanced. The interpretation was of remarkable 
sincerity, but a slight limitation awaited his gifts. In a corner of the landscape 
was a group of small trees, the rare foliage of which seemed like frosted lace blown 
about by the wind. The hand of Harpignies lacked the lightness required for the 
rendering of such a delicate subject. For eight days he struggled, rubbed out, began 
again and again, only to efface his efforts. On the ninth day he said to himself 
that the trees did not stand for any important value in his landscape, so he quietly 
suppressed them behind a tint of azure. After this deed he returned, satisfied at 
having given a lesson to Nature. But he had calculated without his master. When 
Achard came to inspect his work, there was a glance of surprise, then of incredulity, 
then of greater surprise ; finally a frown of indignation, followed by an explosion, as, 
with angered voice, he thundered : "Sir, you will have those trees in your picture 
to-morrow, or you will go home." There came a time when Harpignies was not 
less exacting with himself, which accounts for his enduring hold on fame. He was 
a scientific student of values in color, proceeding at the first with "neutrals." He 
is unsurpassed in his balancing of sky and water, in composing, and then translating 
the harmony of masses. He was devoted to music. Here is a line from his note- 
book : "One must play with the brush as one plays with the strings of a violin." 

This reveals the order of his art ; there was no wayward impulse defying the regnant 
tones of nature. He sought only to enter the sweep of her rhythmic laws, striking 
the chords as light strikes a cloud, " drawing color for a tune, with a vibrant touch." 
In the foreground of our time, his figure, tall, robust, square-shouldered, groups 
naturally, though much younger, with Diaz, Rousseau, and Dupr^. His productions 
affirm that landscape art was not buried when Corot died. 


T^HIS artist was at first merely a colorist of costumes. It was at Rome he unveiled 
•'• his unique talent for treating the life and manners of the pontifical court. This 
was done with such intelligent discrimination, subtle humor, and keen insight that 
Heilbuth entered at once upon a field of broadening renown. He was born in Ham- 
burg in 1826, but naturalized in France. He took his medals under the second class 
in 1857-1859 and 1861 ; Legion of Honor, 1861 ; Officer of the same, 1881. He died 
in Paris in 1889. His "Le Mont de Piete" is at the Luxembourg. He exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, London, in 1871, two pictures — "Spring" and "On the Banks of the 
Seine"; also at Berlin, same year, "The Autumn of Love." He was surnamed "the 
painter of cardinals," so loyally did he render these cheery old gentlemen in red. 
Between the years 1852 and 1862 he oscillated between genre and historical themes, 
successfully sending to exhibitions those works which brought him marked successes: 
" Rubens Presents Brauwer to his Wife," " The Son of Titian," " Tasso at the Court 
of Ferrara," "A Concert at a Cardinal's Home," "The Pawn Shop," "The Promenade," 
and "The Cardinal's Antechamber." Heilbuth forgetting his master, M. Comte, 
and surrendering himself without reserve to the world of impressions at Rome, has 
certainly created a style of his own. To those who were strangers to Heilbuth in 
1855, it will be a surprise to learn that the artist of to-day, so robust and resonant, was 
at that period "a pale, thin dreamer under the falling autumn leaves." He needed the 
sun of the south in his blood, and returning to Rome, caught for his inspiration the 
typical forms, brilliant contrasts, and picturesque tones of the Vatican, becoming its 
recognized painter. His "Monte Pincio," with the clergy in their glowing robes and 
official dignities on the one side and the royal procession of the House of Savoy on the 
other, has not only great artistic value, but for those who, in the future, will seek to 
reconstruct the Rome of the pontiffs, before united lta\y seized the city for its capital, 
it has the intrinsic weight of an historical document. 

In 1870 Heilbuth initiated a departure which may be said to have constituted 
for him a new style, if not his last incarnation. His life in England, where he spent 
two years, profoundly touched and swayed his spirit. He was open to fresh views, 
was accessible to the latest revelation. The beauty of English landscapes and of 
English women, the open air of their social high life, were the forces that now 
differentiated his career. The aristocracy were in turn captivated, and acclaimed 
him their fashion and fad. He painted a famous picture, " Repose after a Cricket 
Game," owned by Sir Richard Wallace. In 1872 he returned to Paris, and, notwith- 
standing his wanderings, his tarrying in Rome, his English episode, came to be 
ranked as the artist of the Grand Monde Parisien. As a water-colorist he dates 
from 1864, and has poured out a mass of gems, full of grace and poetry. He was 
fond of the greensward, the entrance squares of chateatis, placing in his landscapes 
girls in fashionable summer toilets. He specially affected them in white or pearl- 
grey dresses, accented with black belt and long black gloves. About these he 
would fling the bloom of his atmospheres, finely toned with the virginal beauty of 
the costumes and the verdure of the fields. He has been termed "the Watteau of the 
century." His study of "A Lady in Yellow" commands unstinted admiration. 
Heilbuth was prominent in founding the Society of French Aquarellists. 


A PUPIL of the San Fernando Academy, this Spanish artist has justified the 
■**^ prophecies of his kindred, and promises to rank high in the record of his 
future work. 

Although Mr. Stewart secured only "The Head of a Woman" from his 
easel, he bought with it a type of the best art executed in the Spain of to-day. 
Every canon is conserved and made luminous — form, color, poise, and that other 
equation without which the body is but featured clay — the divine glow and pulse 
of life itself. This lovely face is a prelude to creations that must follow after, as 
day follows dawn. 


A MARTIAL soul was encased in the body of Horschelt. For him art must lead 
to the camp life of the soldier and the tumult of battle. He was originally 
taught in the Munich Academy, and later by Hermann Auschutz, a famous martinet 
and drill-master in drawing. His first picture was of such virility as to find a pur- 
chaser in the Society of Arts at Munich — "The Wild Huntsman." He studied horses 
in the royal stables at Stuttgart, and was a favorite with the reigning house. When 
he had barely passed his majority he visited Spain and Algiers ; in 1858 shared in the 
Russian expedition to the Caucasus, accompanying Alexander II. and Albert of Prussia 
in their inspection of the armies, returning to his home city, after five years of absence, 
by way of Moscow and St. Petersburg. This period of his career was filled with 
incessant labor, producing many pictures in oils and water colors. The siege of 
Strasbourg found him busy with sketch-book in the midst of stirring scenes. From 
the sources indicated, Horschelt put forth most effective canvases, having the zest of 
adventure and battle. His series of illustrations of " Chamois Hunting in the Bavarian 
Mountains " has been engraved. 

In 1854, by royal request, he painted for the King of Wiirtemberg "The Rest 
of Arabs in the Desert." His " Arabian Horse " and "A Moorish Camp at Algiers" 
immediately followed. His later works reveal the march of untiring talent. The 
"Storming of the Entrenchments of Schamyl on Mount Gunib" took the first medal 
at the exposition of 1867, through which he was made Chevalier of the Order of the 
Iron Crown of Austria. The Russian Emperor decorated him with the Orders of 
Stanislaus and Saint Anna. His "Morning in the Bedouin Camp" and "A Cavalry 
Attack " are two water colors that have attracted attention. He was fond of freeing 
his humor in small pen-and-ink sketches, caricaturing in the mood of the famous 
"Cham" of Paris. Horschelt had the deep pleasure of finding in his art an outlet 
and unfolding of personal tastes and aspirations to the fullest limit of forceful, fiery 


A CCEPTED by Germany as her greatest painter of genre and by the world as one 
^^ of the chief representatives of that art, Professor Knaus has behind him a trail 
of honors. He was born at Wiesbaden in 1829 ; his father was an optician. He 
studied under Jacobi, and at the age of fifteen entered the Diisseldorf Academy, then 
dominated by Sohn and Schadow. He yielded chiefly to two influences in the 
formative period of his art : the old Dutch masters and the noblest leaders of the 
modern French school. He was never, in any pulse beat of his existence, a DUssel- 
dorfian. Member of the Academies of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, Amsterdam, Ant- 
werp, and Christiania ; Officer of the Legion of Honor ; Knight of the Order of 
Merit. Medaled at Paris, Berlin, Weimar, he has justified in his career every 
distinguished recognition. 

At the age of twenty he had nothing to learn in the mere manipulation of the 
brush ; it only remained for him to perfect himself on lines of larger value. His has 
been a steady growth, each output from his hand revealing finer and riper fruit. 
His ambition did not take him above the common people in his choice of subjects. 
These he sought to know in an intimate, familiar fellowship and to portray their 
customs, joys, griefs, their life battle, whose only armor was very plain daily 
raiment, but whose breasts were shields behind which the conflicts of humanity 
were fought out. Knaus renounced idealistic, mythological compositions of his 
German brethren for the realities of this world. Wherever life was in its normal 
mould, untravestied, free of masks, without pomposities and parade, there was his 
atelier. He has decided fondness for the peasant in all his phases, his simplicity with 
its cunning, his naive self-regard when honored. All his works are significant utter- 
ances for the reason that they are so perfectly composed and, from the standpoint of 
the eye, exactly express the subject. He treats the events of current life with such 
wit, charm, pathos, loyalty, that everyone is delighted, understands, and will not 
forget. Edmond About, in 1855, writes : " 1 do not know whether Herr Knaus has 
long nails, but even if they were as long as those of Mephistopheles it should still be 
said that he was an artist to his finger-ends. His pictures please the Sunday public, 
the Friday public, the critics, the bourgeoisie, and, it may be said, the painters too. 
The connoisseur is won by his knowledge and thorough ability; the most incompetent 

are attracted by his canvases because they tell pleasant anecdotes. Herr Knaus has 
capacity for satisfying every one. He has met his mission and filled it, winning a 
firm, sure place in the affections of the people and the highest coronation in art." 


A FRIEND of David, Gericault, Gerard, Girodet, and Prudhon needs no formal 
presentation. The man of such comradeship must have the artist full grown 
in his heart. Eugene Lami was equipped with every quality that enters into the 
personal adjustment of a strong painter to his sphere. He began at the beginning, 
and patiently drilled under the instruction of Corot, Horace Vernet, and the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. He reached the Legion of Honor in 1837 ; was made Officer, 1862 ; 
medaled in 186=^. His first laurels were won as a water colorist of scenes in fashion- 
able life. Historical representation had a firm fascination for him, and eventually took 
large grasp on his mind. When released as tutor to the Orleans princes, he gave 
himself to travel, visiting Italy, England, Belgium, everywhere alert for the realiza- 
tion of his ideals. In this wandering term he painted " Charles I. Receiving a Rose on 
his Way to Prison," " A Combat in the Campaign of the Balkans," " A Rustic Team," 
" Course and Clocher, Muscovite Bravery." These were followed by more imposing 
examples, in which he exploits his passion for historic pieces. We have the " Com- 
bat of Wattignies," " Capitulation d'Anvers," "The Battle of Alma," " The Combat 
of Hondschoote " (Museum of Lille). 

In all of the foregoing the landscape parts were painted by Jules Dupre. After 
the fall of Louis Philippe in 1848, Lami left France for England. He was accom- 
panied by the satirist Gavarni, whose influence over him may be traced in several of 
his later productions. Lami gave himself entirely to water color during his English 
residence, entering upon a series of works to illustrate the most luminous scenes in 
Shakespeare, Byron, and Goethe. This literary endeavor was a bold attempt to 
think the thoughts of these men of genius into forms and colors. He wedded 
his art to expressions which, in many instances, were incomparably finer than the 
original texts he illustrated. 

A marvelous water color, based on Shakespeare's suggestion, reveals Cleo- 
patra, who, vanquished, receives the visit of Cajsar. The artist has clearly shown 
in Caesar the Roman who spoke to the conquered Queen in these words : "Stand 
up! Do not kneel down ; 1 beg you stand up! Stand up, Egypt!" Lami was 

often great in his composition, as instanced in the Huguenots showing the " Bless- 
ing of the Poignards," and, again, in the picture of young "Marie Stuart Forced 
to Listen to the Preaching of John Knox." 

Another masterpiece is a scene from Sir Walter Scott's "Ivanhoe." In char- 
acterizing an epoch of his own time, he fearlessly lashes the flanks of the nobility. 

"A Double Team of the Prince Demidoff" underscores the high life of 1836. 
His finesse in satire is here shown, and we understand why Gavarni found in Lami 
a friend. This portraiture of Demidoff, a lion of the kingdom of Louis Philippe, is 
a match for ZamacoTs's canvas, the "Education of a Prince." There is much to be 
said upon the scope and variety of Lami's palette. To signalize a brief list gives a 
glance into his fecund brain : " Bal de Tuileries," "Course a Chantilly," " Revue de 
Chasseurs," "The Orgie," "The Marble Stairs of Versailles," "The Navy of Cher- 
bourg," "The Baptism of Louis Xlll." He gave twelve studies to the chronicles 
of Charles IX., illumined the writings of De Musset, and illustrated with brilliant 
designs the Faust of Gounod. These were phrased with melodic motives, and uttered 
chastened passions through symphonies of color. 


A SON of the conductor of music in the cathedral at Cologne, Leibl came to his 
■**■ inheritance under helpful influences. He was born October 2}, 1844. In his 
first years of manhood he strikingly resembled Courbet, both in physique and genre 
gravitations, having like faculty of eye and hand, while in traits of personal character 
he radically contrasted the flaming Frenchman, being reticent, self-contained, and 
exclusive in his choice of friends. His organization foreordained him to art. He is 
at his highest point of expression when treating the lowliest themes ; the simple- 
hearted maiden radiant in the freshness of rustic life, the old grandmother whose 
sweet face is webbed with wrinkles, and the peasant who strikes the earth daily to 
find his bread. There is a cynical clique who affect to find great art only in imposing 
subjects that bulk largely on the historic page or fly abroad in the spectacular involu- 
tions of classic composition, whereas there is no such thing as great or little art, judg- 
ing by such a standard. Art takes its significance from the treatment which a subject 
receives at the hands of the artist. There are great subjects, small subjects, but the 
art lies in the interior grasp and subtle skill of the painter. 

No man, after Professor Knaus, more explicitly illustrates this than Leibl. His 

masterpiece is in the collection before us; the subject, "Village Politicians." These 
types balance him in a sphere with Francois Millet, in the fashion in which Holbein 
correlated Michel Angelo. 

A letter from the artist to Mr. W. H. Stewart fittingly falls into space here : 


My Dear Mr. Stewart : Permit me to earnestly request that you will lend 
me the picture, painted by me, entitled "Peasants" (" Village Politicians "), now in 
your possession, that I may exhibit it in this year's great International Exhibition, 
which will be held in Berlin. For some years past various directors of art exhibi- 
tions have urged me to make some arrangement by which this picture, which is 
very little known in Germany, might be placed before the art-loving public. Because 
I felt, however, that this would perhaps occasion you some trouble, I have not ven- 
tured, in spite of earnest appeals, to approach you upon the subject. But now, at 
the request of the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts (of which, for some years, I have 
been a member), that 1 should exhibit my best picture in this year's great interna- 
tional art show, I write to you for permission to use the " Peasants," which, I am 
convinced, is one of my very best works. I make this request in the hope that you 
will grant the wish of the Berlin Academy. The exhibition will naturally assume all 
responsibility for the safety of the picture, insuring the same. 

I will be under great obligations to you if you will grant this request. 

With expressions of respect, I remain, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. Leibl. 
February ii, 1896. 


A CHILD of Siena, where he was born in 1840, but in the real spirit of his life- 
•** work a son of Venice, is Maccari. He was a pupil in the academy of his 
native city, where he won the Prix de Rome, and subsequently studied in Florence 
under Luigi Mussini. At the close of his Roman curriculum he visited Assisi and 
Venice. The Venetian school powerfully impressed him, and dominated his art. He 
was first and last devoted to historic painting, giving such splendid results as to draw 
the eye of Victor Emmanuel, who commissioned him to decorate the ceiling of the 
royal chapel of the Sudario in Rome. He executed the "Triumph of the Three 
Graces " in fresco for the Quirinal Palace, and for the mortuary chapel at Campo 
Verano, a lunette, "Tobias Burying the Dead." Two works, "Melody" and 
" Fabiola," added much to his fame ; the latter belongs to Dupre, of Florence. In 
1869 he was honored with gold medals in Siena and Parma; in 1876, in Philadelphia, 
at the Centennial, and Grand Prize in Turin in 1880. He is a member of the acad- 

emies in Rome, Genoa, Venice, and Bologna. He also wears the Order of the 
Italian Crown. His masterpiece is judged to be "The Descent from the Cross," 
which, for composition, color, and breadth of handling, is one of the most reverent 
expositions of the tragedy of Golgotha. 


A DYNASTY of Madrazos may be found in the art history of Spain, with laws 
-''■ of hereditary sceptreship. For more than a hundred years the brush has 
passed from father to son. It has been the fancy of Eugene Montrosier to sketch 
in speech the original atelier of Madrazo the First. With a slight paraphrasing it 
follows : "I see the existence of this enthusiast of the unknown, this seeker of the 
golden fleece, wandering, as chance directed, with his knapsack on his back, supping 
on a crust of bread dipped in the brook, sleeping under the stars 'in God's inn,' 
soothing his distress with a song or a kiss blown from the fingers' ends of the 
senora leaning from her window, who blushes redder than the pink that is fastened 
in her black tresses. We would like to describe his rest at the turn of the road, 
the easel placed, the canvas taken from the box, the colors extracted from the tubes, 
and the quick sketch made, expressing in a vivid manner the emotions felt. Then the 
happy chance encounter: a peasant going to town offers the dusty, tired pedestrian 
a place in his cart, and there is picturesque conversation or observations on things 
seen and appreciated differently, with warmth of words and eloquent gestures and a 
ripple of laughter like beads falling from a broken necklace." 

Jose de Madrazo had two sons — Federico and Luis ; Federico, in his turn, also 
had two sons — Raymundo and Ricardo. The subject of this monograph was born in 
Rome in 1841, and baptized in St. Peter's. It is said that the priest of the parish 
initiated him into secrets of painting by allowing him to copy the pictures that were 
in the sacristy of the church. He received instruction from his father, who died in 
1859, as the head of the Madrid Academy. He was also a pupil, in Paris, under 
Winterhalter, a notable exploiter in portraiture, genre, and history. While Ricardo 
Madrazo, his younger brother, has achieved a position quite his own, there is but one 
Madrazo who is recognized as the head of the succession in the family, and that 
upon logical premises established by himself. In 1878 he received for his work at the 
Salon a first-class medal and the ribbon of the Legion of Honor. Up to that date 
he had not appeared in any exhibition. He decorated the palace of the Queen of 

Spain in the Champs Elysees. " M. de Madrazo is original because he does not pro- 
ceed like any of his predecessors, although he knows how to make good use of his 
ancestors. He speaks a new language that has a rhythm of its own, a spontaneous 
cadence, a generous flavor." In spite of his residence there, and his intimacy with 
Fortuny, Rico, and Zamacois, he has never become a Parisian. He has the pleasing 
sensation of being claimed equally by France and Spain. Not unoften the dispute 
waxes hot, and his artistic indentity becomes the ground of combat. The voluble, 
flaunting banners that vex the air afford diversion, and beget no fear in the heart 
of Raymundo de Madrazo. He has permanently impressed his students, variously 
uttered his aims as a modernist of power, and charmingly invested his life in his 


WHEN Eugene Montrosier said that all of Meissonier's art is summed up in the 
following observation, "intelligence and emotion enclosed in a panel the 
size of a hand," he simply indulged in one of those cameos of speech of which the 
French are so fond, the passion for which sometimes leads them into a superficial 
estimate, and a disposition to sneer at their more prosaic, but thorough Dutch 
neighbors. Meissonier could undoubtedly give to his smallest canvas the reach of 
leagues and the force of an epic, but his masterpieces were not panels "the size 
of a hand." Nor was all of his art seen within such confined limitations of space. 
He was so various, so protean, his play of theme so wide, touching the king at 
one extreme and the bandit at the other, that he refuses to disclose himself save 
in the complete review and articulation of his whole career. Certain conditions 
seemed necessary to stir his ardor and arouse his gifts. He must have reality; after 
that, environment of a vivid kind ; form and color were prerequisites, then the com- 
position that threw those into action. He must have action, no matter what its 
impulse, motive, or end, whether the monarch in purple or the robber in rags ; 
there must be some guerdon at stake, some prize for the game. 

Meissonier's idea of repose is a march between two battles, a breathing space 
by the fire, the story of the day's fight under telling, and valor for to-morrow's fight, 
with hand on sword-hilt. Up to his date French art had reveled in many fields, and 
excelled in all except the school of the Dutch masters, whom Meissonier sought 
to rival. He has surpassed those in skill of detail, although he never became their 
peer in color. He was pronouncedly of the eighteenth rather than of the nine- 

teenth century. Without poetic temperament or large pretensions towards an ideal, 
he busied himself in projecting creations which, from thorough knowledge of the 
epoch he would represent, leads us to live with him in the splendors of the past. 
He would not have you understand that past by its materialism — costume, bric-iJ- 
brac, architecture ; he goes beyond these, and reveals its very spirit and color. He 
never forgets his man in building his sphere around him ; he is the central motive that 
first strikes the eye and grasps the intelligence. To speak of Meissonier as a mere 
miniaturist, who can pack "fifty French guards, very lifelike and very stirring, on a 
canvas where two cockchafers would be too crowded," is to judge his art by the 
canon of sheer manipulation ; it is to lose sight of the truthfulness and the soul 
which have dictated his careful execution. 

To one who saw and pondered the exhibition of his studies at the Petit Gallery 
at Paris, in the year following his death, the open page of his secret was read. It was 
simply conscientious, incessant toil. This series represented years of notation. These 
walls were filled with many searchings, perpetual efforts. to seize vital factors in his 
themes. His horses were started, under his pencil, at the bone, and built up from fet- 
lock to head with layers of muscle and nerve finely fibred (for you saw the thorough- 
bred quality of his animal) and perfectly modeled. In this he was a close kinsman to 
the great Angelo Buonarroti, whose note-book, still to be seen in his house in Flor- 
ence, shows that he treated the human figure with the same scientific method ; hence 
the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel at Rome swarms with bodies full of vital fire. 

Albert Wolff, referring to Meissonier's studies when yet on the walls of his 
home, says : "We can there read the sincerity and wonderful determination of a 
man who leaves nothing to chance, who never loses sight of nature, and who makes 
no account of time when it behooves him to carry on a work to the pitch of perfec- 
tion which the artist desires. Drawings, painted sketches, statuettes in wax, have 
been prepared before the final undertaking ; it is the scale practice of this inimitable 
executant before he plays his piece. In this thorough way he has treated the epic of 
the first Empire in a great number of compositions, of which the most perfect, ' The 
Retreat from Russia in 1814,' is not merely a masterpiece of composition and execu- 
tion, but, again, is a grand page of history in limited form." Who can turn down 
that chapter, without a sense of its unutterable pathos ; while the man who "met at 
last God's thunder" sets the crushed face of his hope toward France.? 

Montrosier well-nigh matches Meissonier in picturing the event in words : 
"In a hollow, broken-up road, furrowed with ruts and soaked with half-melted 
snow, Napoleon advances at a foot-pace on his white horse, followed by his staff. 
The generals are dejected and depressed, and dare not break the silence that has 
fallen on him who so often led them to success. They are marching under a dismal 
sky. As to Napoleon, he has the air of a Titan overwhelmed. Pale, with dim 
eyes, the mouth contorted with fever, he moves as one in a dream, letting the 

hand that holds his riding-whip hang down ; the legendary grey coat is wrapped 
around his febrile-shaken body, but seems too large ; under the crush that weighs 
him down he is lessened in size. His marshals follow him, tired out and humili- 
ated, in despair. Ney, however, shows a good front, but Berthier appears stupefied; 
the others drag along their fatigue and shame. One of them is sleeping in his 
saddle, rocked by the cadence of his animal's step. In the distance a column fights 
in full retreat and is lost to view in the foggy horizon. Routed on every side, the 
route is strewn with bloody vestiges, the halting-places marked by corpses. But 
the spectator's eyes leave the mass, to return to that figure of Napoleon with the 
convulsed mask, where all kinds of grief have placed their stigma ; to that colossus 
which a child's hand could overthrow ; to the god of yesterday, crumbling to dust 
under the feet of destiny." 

Meissonier first exhibited, in 1836, " The Little Messenger," but attracted indif- 
ferent attention until 1840 ; then passed quickly into the chamber of renown. He 
was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1846, an Officer in 1856, Member of 
the Institute in 1861, Commander of the Legion of Honor in 1867, Grand Officer 
in 1878. 

He died January 31, 1891. He stood alone in his place ; unyielding in his 
demands upon himself, he would not shift his convictions at the mandate of others. 
Severely reviewed, the centre of much tumult among the small populations that live 
beneath precedents and devoutly follow the leadings of some consecrated clique, 
he serenely held on his course. No dealer dared to tempt him ; the rich patron could 
not juggle with his judgment ; the wizard's wand of gold, that has touched into 
servility so many artists, found him always erect and content. He painted only as his 
conscientiousness dictated. His house of life was sunlit, with broad verandas toward 
the south and wide eastern gables. One day Death passed by, going westward, and 
took him beyond the setting sun, through the portals of immortality. 


A SERIES of pen-and-ink drawings called "Artist's Pilgrimage" discovered 
**■ Menzel to the world. These were followed by a cycle of scenes lithographed 
from the history of Brandenburg. He illustrated Kugler's " Frederick the Great " and 
the Edition de luxe of the king's own works. These commissions opened his mind 
to the magnificence of that reign, and led him to the production of a succession of 

pictures disclosing its character. These were eminently realistic, combining exceed- 
ing skill in the treatment of details, with splendid coloration. 

Up to his fortieth year he had celebrated the glorified past of his country. 
His coronation picture set the seal to the series, which is more than a conventional 
review of ceremonies, the traditional handling of a court event, but a work of art in 
that intimate and august sense that gives to Menzel the dignity of a revelator. 
When he had signed that canvas he went out into the street to be thereafter the 
apostle of humanity, the friend of those masses who strive and cry, laugh and 
mourn under the palpitating strain of life. Coming to Paris, he was fascinated by 
Meissonier ; the feeling was mutual. He painied the portrait of the genreist. The 
intimacy settled into a permanent fellowship, and as Menzel could not speak a word 
of French nor Meissonier a word of German, the two formed an interesting pair 
to watch in the Salon and elsewhere. Their communications were in dramatic 
signs. Meissonier's crisp, demonstrative staccato of speech and gesture was looked 
upon by his German comrade with perfect understanding and entire satisfaction. 
He has been professor since 1856, when he received the great gold medal of the 
Berlin Academy, of which he was constituted a member. Member also of the 
academies of Vienna and Munich and of the Societe Beige des Aquarellistes. He 
entered the Legion of Honor, Paris, 1867 ; the Order pour le Merite, 1870, and was 
knighted by the Bavarian Order of St. Michael. 

He was born at Breslaa, December 8, 181 5. In Paris his representations of 
contemporary life proclaimed him a pioneer there, as he had been in Germany. He 
was acclaimed with enthusiasm, one panegyrist asserting that "Menzel combined all 
the qualities of which other men of talent merely possessed fragments separately 
apportioned among them." He was self-taught, tarrying but a brief time, in 1833, in 
the Academy of Berlin. 

He has stepped aside twice from his canvas to work in fresco. These passages 
of effort may be seen in the interiors of the churches of Innsbruck and Salzbourg. 
Emile Michel, in the Revue des Deux Mondes, December, 1877, records this word of 
praise: " Above, vividly lighted, are white walls, pictures and altars resplendent with 
gilding ; then, by insensible degrees, the light decreases, candles burn in a mysterious 
and lukewarm shade, and below are some faithful ones, absorbed in their prayers, 
with an expression of silence and deep meditation. In place of the heavy pretentious- 
ness, which too often we have pointed out in the works of German painters, we find 
here a true artist, full of tact and taste, of elegance and easy grace, who would worthily 
sustain all comparisons with the best of our French masters." 


A HUNGARIAN landscape painter, who studied in Munich, but has transcended the 
■'*■ old traditions of that school in his development, and was one of the results of 
the German Renaissance. He touches his work with pictorial charm, lucid warmth, 
and poetic fragrance. The scale of his production was not wide, but he moved within 
it in a calm, reposeful fashion. He took congenial and familiar scenes to shift them 
in the differentiated lights of the day or tones of the seasons. The shores of Flatten 
Lake held his affectionate consideration. We see the "Fishermen's Huts "there (in 
the Pesth Museum), the "Twilight Hour," and "Lake Flatten, with Fowls." The 
"Water Carrier on the Banks of the Theiss" was painted in 1885. He was medaled 
at Munich, 1883. 


IN the northern part of Italy, central between what were formerly papal states 
•* and the shores of the Adriatic, lie three portions of what was once the kingdom 
of Naples, each of which bore the name of Abruzzo, collectively registered Abruzzi. 
It is a region seldom visited by tourists, although offering a wild, picturesque mass 
of mountains and forests, interluded with fat pastures, lakes, and torrent-like rivers. 
The natives of these highlands give their time chiefly to tending flocks of sheep. 
During the winter season they descend into the plains ; a few at Christmas even stroll 
to Naples or as far as Rome to sing simple carols and pick up centesimL This 
Italian nomadic life charmed the pencil of Signor Michetti, a Neapolitan artist of rare 
power, who has persistently scorned the merchandise side of art. Years ago we saw 
one of his earliest examples, called the "Young Shepherdess of the Abruzzi." A 
child has fallen asleep on the grass by the forest's edge, while a lamb gently pillows 
its head on her bosom, watching, as would a dog, with wistful solicitude over her 
safety. The sturdy figure of the sleeper was beautifully modeled, the attitude 
having the easy abandon of perfect repose. Both she and her keeper were thrown 

into bold relief by the contrasting screen of the woods, in the midst of which were 
visible other members of the fold, gazing in astonishment at the scene before them. 

Michetti was born at Chieti, near Naples, 18^2, and studied under Dalbono, of 
that city, later in Paris and London. He has been medaled at Rome, Turin, Florence, 
and Parma, and is Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of Italy. His father was a 
day laborer, whom he lost in his youth. A gentleman of position became protector 
to the orphan boy and gave him advantages. In 1876 he returned to the neighbor- 
hood of his birthplace, and settled among the Abruzzi, in Francavilla, close to the 
Adriatic. Here he lived, surrounded by old pictures in the heart of the vigorous life 
of the Italian peasantry. In 1877 he painted his celebrated "Corpus Domini Pro- 
cession of Chieti," a picture which is motleyesque in its discharge of color, a very 
tumult of boisterous rejoicing. The generic meaning of the artist's name is defined 
here — "Michetti": "splendid materials, dazzling flesh tones, conflicting hues set 
with intention beside each other." Everything in this canvas bubbles with laughter — 
every tint of the prism, every face, every flower and fern spray ; above all, the genial 
sun. Now and then Michetti painted the sea. He was prone to take the meridian 
hour, when the sultry heat broods on the azure water, showing fishermen standing 
in it or on the shore, and gayly dressed women, with skirts caught up, searching for 
mussels; while, in the background, boats are seen with dreaming sails. The Spirit 
of the Tides sleeps, barely breathing in liquid murmurs that fall and faint against the 
gates of Capri. 

Again, the artist sends forth a moonrise over the bay or a flowering hillside on a 
summer evening, with children in the foreground. Whatever his theme, he is certain 
of his eye and hand, improvising with precision and dexterity ; a Guilleman before 
the vast organ of nature. 


A PRESENCE welcomed in the studios of Paris is that of Mr. Moore. He is an 
'^ American, born in New York City in 1844. Was first a student in the ficole 
des Beaux Arts; afterward under Ger6me in Paris, and Fortuny at Madrid. The 
dominating influence, however, was that of the Spanish rather than French school. 
He is a figure painter of more than average force. His variations of the subject of the 
Alhambra have found appreciative buyers. His better-known works are his " Almeh," 
for which he received a medal at the Philadelphia Centennial; "Moorish Bazaar," 

" The Blind Guitar Player," and " The Moorish Merchant" ; the type of this last is from 
Algiers. His " Almeh " shows consummate skill in composition. "The figure of the 
swaying and poised woman has the modesty of unconsciousness associated with 
gayety ; the abandon of delight in a voluptuous dance, without the expression or 
manner of one impure. The dance, or, rather, body-swaying of the ' Almeh,' is located 
in one of the gorgeous halls of the Alhambra, frescoed in the intricate and dreamy 
harmony of Moresque decorations ; over the floor is spread a carpet rich in warm 
hues. The attitude of the girl leaves the body semi-nude, and while correct in point 
of costume, is contrived with consummate judgment for effect in color." 

From the studio of Gerome he turned to that of Fortuny, who wielded the 
more powerful sceptre over his mind, giving to his work a dash and sparkle which 
were hitherto wanting. Subsequently he surrendered to the sway of Japanese art, in 
common with the leading impressionists of the time. His studies in shining reds 
and yellows have been highly priced on account of their exceeding popularity with 
American buyers. 


A BIBLICAL painter of unique personality was Domenico Morelli. He broke at 
•**• the start with the reigning powers in that particular branch of Italian art, in 
the end attaining a mastery and founding a school of his own. He was quite the 
pattern for such headship : fiery, yet reserved ; haughty, independent, and radical. 
The young men deserted other teachers for his atelier, where he taught them loyalty 
to the radiant integrity of sun and sea. Among these was Paolo Michetti, whom 
he counted his prize pupil. Morelli was recognized when young, and sent by the 
Neapolitan government to Rome. He was placed under the tuition of Prof. Camillo 
Guerra, but was more influenced by Filippo Palizzi. During a second term at Rome 
he studied with Overbeck, concluding his preparatory monitions by an extended tour 
through the art centers of England, France, Germany, Belgium, and Holland. He 
won first prize at Naples in 1855, the gold medals at Paris in 1861 and 1867, and has 
been admitted to the Academy of St. Fernando, Madrid, of Fine Arts, Naples, and all 
the academies throughout Italy. He is Commander of the orders of St. Maurice and 
St. Lazarus, of the Crown of Italy, and is Cavalier of the Order of Civil Merit of Savoy. 
His more significant works are : "Cesare Borgia at the Siege of Capua," "Christian 
Martyrs" (in the Gallery of Capo di Monte), "The Assumption" (in the Royal Chapel 
at Naples), "Madonna and Child" (in the Church of Castellina), which has been most 

favorably criticised by Prof. Viilari ; a "Christ," painted for Verdi, the composer. At 
the Paris Exposition in 1878 he showed "The Temptation of St. Anthony," gaining 
universal sympathy for the saint. His single panel of "A Woman Seated," in Mr. 
Stewart's group of pictures, is a marked note of clear expression. He was a friend 
of Fortuny's, upon whose recommendation this drawing was purchased. 


A NOBLE mission was that of Mr. William H. Stewart, who went into the realm 
■** of unknown artists on tours of discovery. He had an eye for gifts in embryo, 
and, among others, may be said to have developed de Nittis, whose native place was 
the town of Barletta, several leagues distant from the battlefield of Cannes. The 
family was of Spanish origin, and settled in the Sicilies in the eighteenth century. 
They carried the name of Velasquez. Death took his father and mother when he 
was very young. At the age of twelve he came to Naples, and at sixteen produced 
landscapes directly inspired by Nature. His brother bought him a box of colors, 
those marvelous colors hidden in the white ray, which the prism unweaves. De 
Nittis gave a brief session to Professor Dattoli, another to the Neapolitan School of 
Fine Arts, and then swiftly returned to the breast of Nature. After two years of 
wandering he came back from the fields with a collection of sketches that imperi- 
ously took hold of the public and were discusssd in cafes and on street corners. 
Entering the Museum of Naples, the spell of the old masters fell like dew upon his 
brain. He tells us that it was from these and Nature in the neighborhood that he 
gained all his training. He came to Paris to eat the crusts of poverty, not knowing 
a verb in the language of the city. A fellow-countryman presented him to Brandon, 
who introduced him to Gerome, who introduced him to Meissonier. Doors were 
now opened to this predestined sorcerer. His dauntless, searching, sensitive spirit 
challenged the stiff posings of David and the classicists of his paternity. He took 
the people in the streets of Paris off their guard, and caught the crowds en route. 
The " Place des Pyramids " and the view of the " Pont Royal " are superb studies, 
illustrative of his method. These are exquisitely atmosphered ; the vibrating mist, 
the shifting, curiing smoke, through which graceful figures appear and then vanish, 
show him as a veritable victor in confronting the subtle street phases of Parisian 
life. He rejoiced in the " Bois " and in the "Champs Elysees " ; he was held by 
the masses that throbbed and surged between the Arc de Triomphe and the Obelisk. 

He loved the feathery blooms of the chestnuts, and the disks of delightful color let 
into the grass. 

fimile Blemont thus characterizes him : " Impressionist in conception, de 
Nittis is a harmonist in execution ; the unity of the work comes from the unity 
of the idea. His compositions are as simple as the day and as complex as life. 
The sun awakens and accentuates the tones, warming and impregnating them 
with purple and gold, whilst the shadow, calming the brilliancy, softens the 
contrasts, absorbs the reflections, thus forming by its darker tones the bass of the 
symphony, vaguely lulling the dark blues and twilight violets of the outlines. And 
it is as true as it is charming. The effect corresponds exactly to the mathematical 
bearings of luminous vibrations, to the law of opalescent centers dividing the light 
into warm tints, which they transmit, and cold tints, that are reflected ; the law 
of complementary colors, mutually magnified by their opposition ; and the law of 
collateral colors, where the stronger decompose and partially absorb the feebler. 
Such an art as this is full of perils. What exactness of sight and delicacy of touch are 
necessary! But where the science of de Nittis might hesitate, his taste guides him 
surely; his style is always simple and large. It is certain that since the fifteenth cen- 
tury, art has known the charm of bluish shadows and tempered horizons ; but it is 
only lately that they have really understood and expressed how much there is of air 
and sky that is always mingled with terrestrial sights. To perfect and keep himself 
fresh, de Nittis spares neither time nor trouble. Vivacious, alert, of medium height 
and well built, the features finely cut, with an intense and slightly concentrated 
glance, the face remarkably mobile, brown hair and beard, with golden reflections, he 
is always in movement, always in quest of new fields and unknown sources. Inde- 
fatigable, he paints with ardor streets and woods, landscapes of grass and landscapes 
of stone, wheat-fields, racecourses, earth and water, the Parisian drawing-room 
toilets and the lone dreariness of a ragged old woman on the banks of the Thames. 
In an enormous box, with compartments and grooves, he keeps numberless sketches 
of all sorts. One of the most curious is a study of the sky, done in less than an hour 
in answer to a challenge of Gerome and Boulanger. In the infinite azure floats, like 
white fleece, some wandering vapor ; there is nothing else, and the effect is prodi- 
gious. It is Shelley's cloud transposed ; the painter has modeled the impalpable. As 
he varies his subjects so he varies his processes. 

" It was quite late when he specially devoted himself to drawing, but the really 
great passion of de Nittis is the pastel. If he loses the intense transparency of oil 
colors, he gains a wonderful rapidity of execution, outlines drawn and colored at a 
stroke, tones deliciously modeled, and shadows of a strange softness ; he gains that 
marvelously misty envelopment that yields the golden dust of a sun's ray, the velvet 
of a ripe fruit, the down of flowering carnations, the haze of the horizon's air, dif- 
fused light, atmosphere, and perspective. His chef-d'oeuvre in this style is the portrait 

of a woman exhibited in 1882. He passed through impressionism without lingering 
or losing himself, only keeping a flower of white light with a bit of thread fallen from 
the scarf of Iris." 

He was medaled in Paris — third class, 1876 ; first class, 1878 ; Legion of Honor 
in the same year. His " Road from Naples to Brindisi " was the chief centre of interest 
for the Salon of 1872. Of this M. Montaignac thoughtfully says: "An evolution was 
going on ; painters were trying to free themselves from black and from bitumen ; 
there was a marked tendency toward the sun — a real sun — not made by black or 
white ; de Nittis's ' Brindisi Road ' appeared. The picture was at the same time a 
proof and a lesson ; it showed to what point the power of color could be carried 
without turning things black ; it taught the process to those who were seeking 
for it." 

De Nittis died at St. Germain in 1884. Gerome, Meissonier, Manet, were the 
masters whom he welcomed last. While they undoubtedly had a share in the artistic 
moulding of his individuality, there came a time when but feeble trace of them could 
be discerned. The maturing soul of the painter had caught higher visions, and was 
unrestful until these came down to dwell with him. 


A HEART familiar with the sun beats in the breast of Mr. Alfred Parsons, coloring 
•**■ his art and his life with a golden hue touched with crimson. Mr. Henry James 
calls him "the painter of happy England," and further exploits his style as one easily 
ministering to the " quietest complacency " of that self-centred nation. He says Mr. 
Parsons is "doubtless clever enough to paint rawness when he must, but he has an 
irrepressible sense of ripeness. Half the ripeness of England, half the religion, one 
might almost say, is in its gardens; they are truly pious foundations." Recall Mr. 
Alfred Austin's book on "The Garden that 1 Love," the original of which spreads its 
beauty round the Dower-house of Goddington in Kent. Mr. Parsons has shown us 
the English passion for flowers, as a protest against the greyness of their climate. 
He has looked over many walls, gone with observing leisure down many alleyways 
of hawthorn and boxwood, and caught the fragrant swing of their organized revels 
of color. Here is one picture for the verbal setting of which we are indebted to Mr. 
James : "A corner of an old, tumbled-up place in Wiltshire, where many things have 
come and gone, represents that moment of transition in which contrast is so vivid as 

to make it more dramatic than many plays ; the very youngest throb of spring, with 
the brown slope of the foreground coming back to consciousness in pale lemon-colored 
patches, and on the top of the hill, against the still cold sky, the equally delicate forms 
of the wintry trees. By the time these forms have thickened, the expanses of daffodil 
will have become a mass of bluebells. All his daffodil pictures have a rare loveliness, 
but especially those that deal also with the earlier fruit blossom, the young plum trees 
in Berkshire orchards. Here the air is faintly pink, and the painter makes us feel the 
little blow in the thin blue sky. In every touch of nature that he communicates to us 
we feel something of the thrill of the whole ; we feel the innumerable relations, the 
possible variations of the particular objects. We walk with him on a firm earth ; we 
taste the tone of the air, and seem to take nature and the climate and all the compli- 
cated conditions by their big general hand. The painter's manner, in short, is one 
with the study of things ; his talent is a part of their truth." 

He was born in England, 1821. The larger part of his life has been passed 
in the city of New York and in regions neighboring the metropolis, where he has 
noted many themes. He is a famed illustrator of books and magazines. In i860 
he was elected an Associate of the National Academy; he is a Member of the Artists' 
Fund Society and of the Society of Painters in Water Colors. He sent in 1876 to 
the Water Color Society, "Salem"; in 1877, "November"; in 1878, " Gravesend 
Bay." His mother-land may still claim him, although he has given the larger share 
of his years to the United States. He has never lost her inspirations. While follow- 
ing the processional of her seasons, reflecting every phase and tint of her springtides, 
summer, autumn, and winter moods, he has given to her more than she has 
bestowed upon him. 


A N ARTIST rightfully resents comparison, even when it bears the cup of praise, 
^*- choosing rather to stand on foundations of his own building than to rest on 
those of another. Professor Pettenkofen has been called the Austrian Meissonier. 
He does not need that title to carry prestige to his name. He was born in Vienna 
in 1823 ; studied at the academy there, but was seriously discontented with the 
tuition proffered. He sought better instruction in the productions of Wouvermans 
and Van de Velde. Afar off he heard rumors of a band of seekers — Troyon, Rous- 
seau, Daubigny in Paris, of Leys and Stevens in Belgium, and preened his wings 

for flight beyond the bounds of the German-Austrian school. Meantime he was 
compelled to respond to the regulation conscription, and was drafted into the army 
of Francis Joseph. He rose rapidly from the ranks, and was promoted to the grade 
of captain. But the mission of arms could not adequately voice his dreams. So soon 
as his term of service ended he returned to the brush, to become the representative 
painter of Austria. He turned to his experiences as captain for a field of suggestion, 
and was soon pouring forth a mass of incidents from the army and its unruly Hun- 
garian contingent that have historical verity. He craved the company of the group of 
searchers whose renown had reached him in Vienna, and turned towards Paris, where 
he completed his transition from ossified to living genre work. He took under his 
arm two sketches, "The Spy " and " Marauders Dividing Booty," the last of which 
found a purchaser in Sir Richard Wallace. He has multiplied the scenes of his army 
life, and wrought groups from the villages of Bohemia and Hungary. Mr. Van 
Cuyck was so fascinated with his "Marauders" that he requested the privilege of 
two pictures from the artist — "Scene After a Due!" and "Hungarian Volunteers." 
The last was sold to M. Rone, who exhibited it at the Cercle de I'LInion Artistique. 
Mr. Van Cuyck so bitterly regretted its loss that he repurchased it, saying that only 
death should take it from his possession. It was on the value of this canvas that 
Professor Pettenkofen received a decoration from the Emperor of Austria, who saw 
it at Vienna in 1873. His "Austrian Cavaliers Passing a Ford" was sold to the 
Frankfort Museum. In the yearly exhibition at Vienna in 1876 he displayed his most 
remarkable picture, "A Market Scene in Hungary." He is Chevalier of the Order 
of the Crown of Oak. 


A PEASANT in the character of his presence, this artist is none the less a refined 
-'»■ and observant gentleman, who has brought to his easel a sagacious mind 
under the control of noble aims. He impresses by his direct simplicity of motive and 
poetic purity, combining firmness of technique with the intimacy and vital fresh- 
ness of his subjects. His personal equation is expressed in fundamental honesty, 
frankness, repose, translucence ; the man has ruled the artist, producing compositions 
of truth and of style, which is "a manner of right seeing and true doing." Henri 
Pille is gifted with a remarkable memory. It is recited of him by a friend who had 
attended the theatre in his company, that the next day he saw him, while delivering 

reflections on the intrigues and whole effect of the play, design with rigorous exact- 
ness the costumes of the actors in their least details, indicating the colors and the 
shades. He exhibited in the Salon of 1870 "Sancho Recounting his Exploits to the 
Duchess"; in 1872, "Autumn"; in 1875, "Matrimonial Accord"; in 1875, "Market 
at Antwerp" and "Old Clothes"; in 1876, "The Morning Interview, Intemperance 
and Sobriety." 


AN engraver on wood for illustrated books was the original sphere of this artist. 
He advanced to water-color themes, and at once solicited the consideration of 
connoisseurs. He was elected an Associate of the Society of Water Colors in 1869, 
contributing frequently to the exhibitions in Dudley Gallery up to 1871, when he was 
made a full member, but frail health restrained him from activity after that date. 
His "Pied Piper of Hamelin," "The Elixir of Love," "The Saracen Maiden," and 
"The Strolling Player" are his most important examples. There was an atmosphere 
of pathos in his work. His appeal was to the thoughtful rather than to those who 
seek qualities of art only on the surface. Pinwell repaid the study of underlying 
history. He was born in London in 1842, and passed to rest in 1875. His works 
are rarely seen to-day outside of collections. 


A PUPIL of Lorenzalez, Ribera was caught in the influences that were set in play by 
'*■ the honest effort of Spain to free herself from conventionalisms, and to look 
at the world with eyes cleared of mists and untwisted by the strabismus of conse- 
crated precedent. His "Cafe Chantant" reveals the grasp and brush-work of a 
master with a fine certainty of characterization. Contemporary life affords Ribera 
his field. He received honorable mention at the Paris Exposition, 1878, and the 
gold medal at Barcelona ten years later. He is Fellow of the Royal Academy of Art, 
Knight of the Order of Isabella, and of the Order of Christo of Portugal. 


A GUITAR and a generous bundle of cigarettes could take Rico round the globe. 
■'*• He came to his first knowledge of art through the kindness of a cavalry captain, 
who taught him to draw. From the trooper he passed to the Madrid Academy, and, 
as he progressed, made his living by engraving on wood in moments of leisure. 
With a few jingling coins in his pocket, he would take long excursions through the 
country, getting upon friendly terms with herdsmen or gypsies, reducing expenses 
to the minimum, and not unfrequently having to beg his way back to the city. In 
1862 he secured the first Prix de Rome ever given at Madrid for landscape. The 
four years' pension carried the privilege of a choice between Rome and Paris. Rico 
went to Paris. Zamacoi's introduced him to Daubigny and Meissonier. When his 
pensionate had expired he was fortunate in finding that prince of patrons, the father 
of Mr. Julius L. Stewart, the artist, who gave him advancement until, well on his feet, 
he could march single-file. He was susceptible to the delicate moods of Nature, her 
restful interludes, her deeps of still skies unvexed by tempests, even undreamed of 
clouds. His spirit was steeped in light and toned with color. Mr. John C. Van 
Dyke, in the y4rt Review of December, 1887, says of him : "Entirely different from 
Rousseau, he did not paint the strong, enduring, storm-tossed trees of the centuries, 
but rather the soft, delicate foliage of early summer swayed by the slightest breeze 
or hanging motionless in the heated air. The world of nature seems to have been a 
sort of dreamland to Rico, for his art was flooded with a 'rapture of repose' that 
steals over the sunlit streets, the silent water, the nodding trees, and the distant hills. 
This was his point of view, and when men like Rico put their impressions on canvas, 
conveying it to others by technical skill, it is rightly called art." 

He was the intimate comrade of Fortuny, and was with him in Italy for a longer 
time than any other friend. His pictures of this period are Fortunesque ; indeed 
several of his sea pieces, especially those of the Venetian canals and the Bay of Fonta- 
rabia, might have been painted by the distinguished Catalonian himself In others he 
appears more serene and harmonious than the latter. Richard Muther deems his 
execution more powerful ; " less marked by spirited stippling, his light gains in 
intensity and atmospheric refinement what it loses in mocking caprices." Certain 
market scenes, with a dense crowd of buyers and sellers, are peculiarly spirited, rapid 
sketches, with a gleaming charm of colors. In 1878 he was medaled at the Salon 

and endowed with the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In the days of his opulence he 
does not forget his struggles and the narrow margins of his boyhood, maintaining 
very simple habits. He travels widely and far for fresh things, and, whether in water 
colors or oils, so brilliantly speaks as to command the praise of the people and the 
franchise of the rich. He was personally precious to Fortuny. 


•T^HIS whole-hearted genre painter was born at Atzgersdorf, not far from Vienna, in 
•■■ 1835. He was a pupil of the Vienna Academy and of Rahl, and subsequently 
resided in Rome. His Italian figure-work is of first rank. He made a permanent 
success in rendering the child-life of Vienna, and is strongly akin to Knaus in the 
verity and spirit of his compositions. Medals, 1869 and 1872; Legion of Honor, 1882. 
His pen-and-ink sketches are of a high order. For him the aim of art was not beauty, 
but the expression of truth. 


A DISTINGUISHED artist in a family of renown, who paints for her pleasure and 
•* *• that of her friends. She is a member of the Societe de Aquarellistes in 
Paris, and occasionally exhibits, as instanced by the two effective landscapes shown in 
London in 1875. Her status carries the strength of a professional, although she ranks 
as an amateur, being unwilling to sell her pictures. The canvas to be seen in Mr. 
Stewart's collection was a gift. 


T^HERE is one name in the annals of modern French art that must give a thrill of 
■■■ joy and a consciousness of assured satisfaction whenever it is written, whether 
the pen be in the hand of a venerable savant like Albert Wolff, or the merest tyro 
who takes art for a tonic. The name is the caption of this unworthy monograph. 
Who has not felt the futility of words in the presence of a great creation ? A cliff at 
sea, whose ledges hew out of the pitiless bulk and green gloom of great billows ; 
passionate hearts " white as snow and tenderer than lilies"; a peak cleaving the air, 
an eyrie for mountain eagles, and an altar for worship; a sunset trembling on the sky 
like "a harvest kingdom of red wheat"; an oak by Rousseau, whose roots grip the 
ribs of earth, whose body gives greeting alike to sun-floods or storms ; a Titan unbent 
by the tread of a thousand years. This artist was the supreme intellectual painter of 
France, an aspirant for knowledge until the black fog of death dimmed his brain. A 
glimpse of his method has been given us by M. Alfred Sensier in his book, "Souvenirs 
sur Theodore Rousseau." 

" I went to see him in Indian summer in November. His little house was cov- 
ered with clematis and nasturtiums. He showed me a whole collection of pictures, 
sketches, monotint studies, and compositions 'laid in,' which made him ready for 
twenty years' work. He was beginning his beautiful landscape, 'The Charcoal Burn- 
er's Hut,' so luminous and so limpid. He had laid it in with the right general effect 
at the first painting on a canvas prepared in grey tints, and after having placed his 
masses of trees and the lines of his landscape, he was taking up, with the delicacy 
of a miniaturist, the sky and the trunks of the trees, scraping with a palette knife to 
half the depth of the painting and retouching the masses with imperceptible subtlety. 
' It seems to you that 1 am only caressing my picture, does it not "? That I am putting 
nothing on it but magnetic flourishes } 1 am trying to proceed like the work of 
nature itself, by accretions which, brought together or united, become forces, transpar- 
ent atmospheric effects, into which I put afterward definite accents as upon a woof of 
neutral value. These accents are to painting what melody is to harmonic bass, and 
they determine everything, either victory or defeat. The method is of slight impor- 
tance in these moments when the end is in sight ; you may make use of anything, 
even diabolical conjurings,' he said to me, laughingly, ' and when there is need of it 
I use a scraper, my thumb, a piece of cuttlebone, or even my brush-handles. They 

are hard trials, these last moments of the day's work, and I often come from them 
worn out, but never discouraged.' Then stopping short in his talk, ' Come, let us go 
for a walk ; I will show you a little of the law of growth in nature itself.' " 

Rousseau had plunged into nature's centre. His landscapes are laid down on 
a world the anatomy of which was familiar to him. He is the majestic prophet of 
solitude, of vast plains and forests, a revealer of moss-grown rocks, in the midst of 
which he sets his gigantic trees. His favorite was the oak, the primeval wide- 
branched oak, such as stands in one of his masterpieces — "A Pond." 

Plants, trees, and rocks were not forms summarily observed and clumped 
together in an arbitrary fashion ; for him they were beings gifted with a soul, 
breathing creatures, each one of which had its physiognomy, its individuality, its 
part to play, and its distinction of being in the great whole of universal nature. 
He tells us : "By the harmony of air and light, with that of which they are the life 
and the illumination, I will make you hear the trees moaning beneath the north 
winds, and the birds calling to their young." He has the attitude of TurgeniefT's 
"Sportsman " toward Nature. Man receives neither love nor hatred at her hands. She 
looks beyond him with her deep, earnest eyes, because he is an object of complete 
indifference to her. "The last of thy brothers might vanish off the earth, and not a 
needle of the pine tree tremble." While this is the philosophical posture of Rous- 
seau's mind, no man has informed nature with deeper moods, reflecting the spirit of 
the child, whom God has placed before her. In fact, the greatest picture he ever 
painted lets forth this accordant note. It is called " Le Givre," and is the crown jewel 
in that marvelous grouping of gems known as the "Walters Collection." Wha|p 
Turner's "Slave Ship " was to the realm of marine art, Rousseau's " Le Givre " is to the 
realm of landscape. The earth is ridged as from the spasms of an old agony, the grass 
turned to a hoary green beneath the withering frost; the forest-masses of the back- 
ground stand at arms while the day dies. Everywhere one reads the shadowy 
footmarks of sorrows that have journeyed that way, going down into the valley and 
beyond the hills, pilgrims to a dreaded destiny. There is a tragic memory in the 
sunset. This canvas is the bitter epic of a soul whom want and the world's scorn 
were seeking to drive to despair. But the world and want reckoned without 
knowledge of the man whose patient courage will fight as long as his dust holds 
together. It is a perpetual satire on Paris that " Le Givre " was carried all day through 
the streets of the city by Dupre, who failed to find a purchaser, and sold it in the late 
evening to Baroilhet, the singer, for five hundred francs ; who, counting out the sum, 
said with a sigh, "Paintings will be my ruin in the end"! What changes were 
wrought by the time Edmond About, in his notes on the artists of the Salon of 1857, 
wrote these words : 

"Theodore Rousseau has been for twenty-five years the first apostle of truth in 
landscape. He made a breach in the wall of the historic school, which had lost 

the habit of regarding nature and servilely copied the bad copyists of Poissin. This 
audacious innovator opened an enormous door by which many others have followed 
him. He emancipated the landscape painters as Moses formerly liberated the Hebrews 
in exitu Israel de /Egypto. He led them into a land of promise, where the trees 
had leaves, where the rivers were liquid, where the men and animals were not of 
wood. On the return of this truant school the young landscapists forced the entrance 
of the Salon, and it was still Theodore Rousseau who broke down the door. In that 
time Rousseau occupied the first rank in landscape — above all, as a colorist ; but 
neither the institute nor the public wished to confess it. His uncontestable talent was 
contested by all the world. It is only to-day that his reputation is made." 

Thirty years have gone since this panegyric was penned, and these years have 
proved that not a single sentence was overcharged with praise. He was born in 
Paris, 1812. Pupil of Guillon-Lethiere, whose lessons he soon forgot. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. His adversaries pursued him to the last, and wounded him 
sorely by neglect and intrigues. The slight put upon him, though chief of the section 
of the jury at the Universal Exposition of 1867, in his failure to receive the rosette of 
the Legion, hurt him keenly. In the distribution of official recompenses others 
were preferred. Among the fragments of letters found at his death was the draft 
of a protest to the Emperor, which was never sent ; he had torn it asunder and 
thrown it aside, too proud to make the appeal for justice. A few years after his mar- 
riage his wife was seized by madness, and though his friends besought him to put her 
away in some retreat, he would never consent. Whilst he tended her he became the 
victim of a brain affection which clouded his end. In 1867, when Rousseau lay 
dying, a parrot screamed, and his demented wife danced and trilled. He was buried 
in front of the forests he loved at Barbizon. His friend Millet set up a memorial 
for him, a simple cross carved upon an unhewn block of sandstone, with tablet of 
brass engraved " Thiodore Rousseau, Peintre." 


f IE has the right to rival the old Spanish masters on account of the glowing tone 
*■ ^ with which he has invested his cavaliers of the seventeenth century. Roybet 
conserves the identity of the historical, but does not sacrifice his pictorial art to it. 
He has given an accomplished translation of the aspects of the period in which he 
revels. He was born at Uzes, 1840. Studied at the School of Arts at Lyons. Settled 

in Paris, 1864. He sent the "Jester of Henry III." to the Paris Salon of 1866, for 
which he was medaled. He knew how to give environment to his great people, a 
skill in which the French have pronounced mastership. He presents his superb 
cavaliers and their ladies, grouped with vivid power within picturesque incidents 
and surroundings. The formal is charged with vitality, the ceremonious is shaped 
into plastic expression ; hence we have movement and the delight of life. He 
would not paint unattractive histories ; his accurate sense of events and their bearings 
must needs have the allurement of fascinating episodes. To the large circle to whom 
he speaks he has proved himself brilliant, original, and sincere. We know that an 
exhibition of his collected works in Paris, 1890, was the occasion of an enthusiasm 
which has been rarely aroused by any display in that city of the productions of a 
single hand. 



TPHE "principal painter in ordinary to Her Majesty" is the title which is worn by 
■* James Sant. The honor is well bestowed. He was born in London, 1820. A 
pupil of Varley, who prepared him for the Royal Academy, which he entered at the 
age of twenty years. Shortly thereafter he found his sphere in the painting of por- 
traits. Among his earlier efforts we have " Samuel," 1853 ; " Children of the Wood," 
1854 ; "The First Sense of Sorrow," which led to his election as an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1862. Among his circle of sitters we find the Due d'Aumale ; the 
Lord Bishop of London, whom he painted in 1865 ; the Queen and the children of 
the Prince of Wales, 1872. His "Young Whittington " was shown at the Cen- 
tennial, Philadelphia, 1876; "The Early Post" and "Adversity" at Paris, 1878. 
Referring to "The Early Post," the Art Journal, July, 1875, g'ves unqualified praise : 
"Mr. Sant has given us everything in this painting— youth, beauty, life, sympathy, 
a charming story, and a very pleasant reminiscence of an English country house with- 
out our ever having been there. As an example of careful art-work and purity of tone 
in coloring, this composition of itself is excellent, but as an incident of everyday life 
depicted on canvas it is one of the best pictures of the Academy." 


A N English landscape painter residing in London, whose artistic qualities have 
■** made him for years a most reliable contributor to the Royal Academy. What- 
ever he undertook, the result was a picture. It is not a fragmentary effort to catch 
some transient phase of nature, not an exhibition showing the presence of some 
clique or school in art, but a whole story from the great book, a beautiful rehearsal 
of some single song or chapter out of the heart of the world. He demonstrates a well- 
balanced unity, regard for eminent leaders in landscape, and has caught connections 
concerning the body of things about him that assert his own right to rank among the 
best exponents in modern English art. He is a Member of the Institute of Painters 
in Water Colors. He has gained the patronage of a loyal constituency, who steadily 
purchase his pictures. He has shown "The Fallen Monarch," "Early Spring," and 
"The Harvest Field" in water color. In oils, through recent years, he has exhibited 
"After the Storm," "Highland Harvest House." To the Paris Exposition in 1878 he 
sent "The Wreck," in oil, and "The Beech-Trees" and "Poplars," in water color. 
The Art Journal of July, 1876, ventures to speak of "The Wreck" as a "noble speci- 
men of grandly painted seascape, certainly one of the masterpieces of the year." 
There is a marked influence of Constable on his finest examples. 


A CONJUNCTION of a Belgian and a Frenchman is seen in the massive, broad- 
■'*■ shouldered man who stands before us. Perhaps the Belgian strain is the 
more strongly current in his blood, but of this the critics are not sure ; where these 
are in doubt let angels fear to tread. Alfred Stevens represents health and color in 
art. His healthfulness is not so intrusive as to be ill bred, for no man has surpassed 
him in rendering pictures at once solid and refined, graceful and even. He carries 
a dexterous brush in a large deft hand, and produces what men love to linger over. 

with a finished style, an elegant execution, and sincere poetic sentiment. His patron- 
age has been powerful from the beginning ; honors have come to him with 
growing significance. He has been medaled in Brussels and Paris, third, second, and 
first classes ; Member of the Legion, in which he attained Commander's place in 
1878. Austria, Bavaria, the museums of France, Belgium, Germany, and England 
give prominent recognition to his name. Born at Brussels, 1828. 


A PARISIAN from Philadelphia is the characterization that has been made of this 
■'' gifted artist and cultured gentleman. He reversed the course of Mr. Humphrey 
Moore, who went from Gerome to Fortuny. Mr. Stewart went from the atelier 
of Zamacoi's, Fortuny's pupil, to that of Gerome. His antecedents fitted him for 
the broadest training, his father, one of the most renowned of modern collectors, 
giving every advantage to his son. The leading critic of the continent has said : 
"The earlier original works of Julius Stewart were as brilliant, as colorful, and spirited 
as if they had come from an easel native to Spain or Italv, but with his advancing 
powers and his wider social range in Paris his style assumed a more subtle and 
elegant form ; he occupies to-day a unique place as the painter par excellence of 
modern social life in the gay city." His " Five O'Clock Tea" was one of the most 
refined pictures of the Paris Exposition of 1889. "The Hunt Ball" ("After the 
Hunt") won him fame on both sides of the sea. It is now owned by the Hon. 
Franklin Murphy, of Newark. 

Mr. Stewart is distinctly a modernist, giving serious weight to every fresh 
movement in the kingdom of art, ready to discern values in any school that reveals 
firmer, closer hold on the verities of life and the truths of nature. His advance has 
been toned by the reflected lights of Gerome, Madrazo, ZamacoTs, while at his belt 
he wears the key which he alone has forged, which he alone can turn. Mr. Stewart 
received honorable mention in the Paris Salon of 1885 ; Member of International 
Jury, Paris Universal Exposition, 1889 (hors concours) ; medal, Salon, 1890 ; gold 
medal, Berlin, 1891 ; Knight of the Order of Leopold of Belgium, 1894 ; Knight 
of the Legion of Honor, 1895 ; grand gold medal, Berlin, 1896 ; gold medal, 
Munich, 1897 ; Member of Jury of Selection for World's Columbian Exposition, 
where, in consideration of this honor, he did not compete. In 1895 his " View of 
Venice " was bought by the German Emperor. 


T^HE mastership of Troyon lay in his breadth of technique, harmony of com- 
*■ position, and an intuitive, direct seizure of nature at first hand. It would be 
a flippant and useless travesty on the man to trace him back to the days when he 
painted porcelains at Sevres. He came to the unfolding of his potential self in com- 
munion with souls kindred to his own : Theodore Rousseau and Jules Dupre. He 
was a landscape painter of finished power before his visit to Belgium and Holland, 
which turned his attention to animal life. Those who have been privileged to study 
the features of his genius as a landscapist will ever be grateful that he graduated there 
first. The example in the collection of Mr. Quincy Shaw, of Boston, is quite the 
highest expression of his ability — a noble, strong handling of surfaces that impress 
the beholder as having been laid upon foundations of granite. The tree-forms are 
magnificently built up and buttressed. They recall the sturdy standing of Rem- 
brandt's oaks — as though they were living personalities conquering under the sweep 
of the north wind and the flails of tempests. 

In fact, it was Rembrandt, rather than Paul Potter or Albert Cuyp, who set a 
broader vital impulse stirring in his blood. In 18S9 Troyon painted the picture in the 
Louvre which displays him at the meridian of his power. "Till then," says Muther, 
" no animal painter had rendered with such combined strength and actuality the long, 
heavy gait, the philosophical indifference, and the quiet resignation of cattle ; the 
poetry of autumnal light and the mist of morning, rising from the earth and veiling 
the whole land with grey, silvery hues. The deeply furrowed, smoking field makes 
an undulating ascent, so that one seems to be looking at the horizon over the broad 
face of the earth. A primitive Homeric feeling rests over it. What places Troyon far 
above the old painters is his fundamental power as a landscapist, a power unequaled 
except in Rousseau. His 'Cow Scratching Herself and his 'Return to the Farm' 
will be counted amongst the most forceful animal pictures of all ages." 

It was in 1847 that he astonished the Salon with a cattle piece so strong in 
color and of such vivid realism that he established his fame at a stroke. His art is 
penetrated with poetry, the rustic poetry of out-of-doors on a clear-minded day ; a 
poetry that sweeps with its vision the fields, the herds, the dogs, the Keeper, the 
grass, flowers, every flame-like spire and leaf in the woods ; while arching all is the 

great sky, like a vast chalice of sapphire overturned, from the rim of which foaming 
clouds slowly drop and drift. Troyon sent sixty masterpieces to the Salon between 
the years 1823 and 1865. In this last year a shadow fell on his easel, and death turned 
a renowned career into a renowned memory. Mr. William Henry Howe (himself a 
strong painter of animals), in "Modern French Masters," has this estimate, which is an 
up-to-date type of intelligent regard and differentiation touching Troyon : " Potter, as 
an animal painter, was never the equal of Troyon. He could paint isolated objects 
with harsh truth, but he never could gain the whole, the ensemble of things, as com- 
pared with Troyon. He could paint cowhides and cow anatomy, but he never could 
paint cow life. Albert Cuyp could give the truth of a cow's skeleton, the rack of 
bones and members, with exceptional force, but Troyon, in painting cows — the 
clumsy, wet-nosed, heavy-breathing bovine — was vastly his superior. Again, Land- 
seer could humanize dogs and other animals, giving them a sentiment quite opposite 
to their nature, but Troyon never distorted or sentimentalized in any such way. He 
told the truth. It has been said that he was the most sympathetic painter of this 
century. It may be added that in the painting of animals and their homes he was the 
greatest painter of this or any other century." 

Hamerton's "Contemporary French Painters" gives a kindred estimate: " In the 
'Oxen Going to Work' we have a page of rustic description as good as anything 
in literature — of fresh and misty morning air, of rough, illimitable land, of mighty oxen 
marching slowly to their toil ! Who that has seen these creatures work can be indif- 
ferent to the steadfast grandeur of their nature .? They have no petulance, no hurry, 
no nervous excitability ; but they will bear the yoke upon their necks and the thongs 
about their horns, and push forward without flinching from sunrise until dusk." 

He was ever seeking new themes, and greeted with delight any variation from 
the average body-colors of his friends on the turf. Upon one occasion he was 
saluted with mocking hilarity in the midst of neighbors, when he tied up to paint 
a cow of magnificent tawny tone. She was an animal, in their judgment, of but 
little value. "This gentleman," they said, "has chosen to represent in his picture 
the only worthless creature there is in the whole pasture. Why, she is being fattened 
for the butcher ! " 

How suggestive "the point of view" becomes under the light of this incident. 
Troyon saw rare color and splendid form. The farmers saw only a poor milk-giver. 
Each from his own logical outlook was right. Troyon never married, devoting him- 
self to his mother and his art. She established, as a memorial of her son, " The 
Troyon Prize " for students in animal life. His massive frame, dissolved in dust, lies 
in the old historic Montmarte Cemetery of Paris, but surely he is with Rousseau. 


I3ORN at Boom, near Antwerp, 182?; passed outward, 1876. A noble teacher 
"-^ of the art he finely illustrated. He was early inclined to his professional career. 
Studied in the Academy of Brussels, where his rapid development astonished the 
masters. He was sent, at the expense of his native village, to the academy at 
Antwerp, entering at the age of fifteen. Here he took all prizes, and so captured 
the interest of the president. Baron Wappers, that he took him into his own studio as 
an assistant. His first picture was a scene from Sir Walter Scott's " Kenilworth " — an 
interview between " Leicester and Amy Robsart." This was followed by " Milton 
Dictating Paradise Lost to his Daughter." In 1848 he exhibited at the Brussels 
Exposition a picture for which he was awarded the gold medal. "Joan of Arc " was 
shown in i860, the year of his appointment as Professor of Painting in Antwerp 
Museum. The incident on which the work was based is said to have occurred when 
La Pucelle was in command of the army at the siege of Paris. The tradition is, that 
upon going the rounds of the camp, as was her custom, she came upon soldiers 
carousing with followers of the army. Her indignation was so great that she delivered 
a blow of menace on the air with such violence that the miraculous sword, which 
had been sent her from Fiertoes, was broken in two. The dramatic pose of Joan's 
figure is as superb as the attitudes of the men and women are abject and affrighted. 
For this work Van Lerius was medaled with gold in Amsterdam, and elected to an 
honorary membership in the Academy. At the International Exposition at Munich 
in 1869 he exhibited a dramatic work representing a maiden plunging headlong from 
her chamber window to escape dishonor. Among his later efforts were "The First- 
Born," bought by Queen Victoria ; " Volupte et Denouement," purchased by Prince 
Saxe-Coburg of Gotha. In 1877 the city of Antwerp bought the "Lady Godiva." 


T TIS father had been a pupil of Watelet, and was favorably known in Germany as a 
'^ *■ landscape painter. His mother, who was French, was an artist of flowers, 
receiving a medal at the yearly salon where she exhibited. Emile was their only son. 
It was at the Liege drawing school that he took up his first studies. Here he carried 
off all the prizes, but was restrained from vanity by the thorough counsels of his 
father and mother. He married early the daughter of M. L. Robert, for a long period 
connected with the Sevres manufactory, and who, at the death of Regnault, became 
chief director. Here he secured a position for his son-in-law, who seriously began 
upon his work of decorating on glazes, and followed it for nine years. He executed 
landscapes relieved by animal forms. Several large-sized pieces on p^ie tendre were 
offered as gifts to sovereigns ; those presented to the Qyeen of Holland were of 
unusual beauty. Troyon, whose mother lived at Sevres, visited her frequently, and 
was attracted to Van Marcke, to whom he offered instruction. The relation became 
confidential, and to the young artist the realization of his ambition. His first canvas 
was a success, but the critics, instead of seeing Van Marcke in it, saw Troyon. For 
many years this proved a limitation on him in the judgment of the public. The 
formula was very simple through which he was compromised and was disbarred 
from his rightful estate. 

Those who liked his painting (and they were numerous) could find no better 
compliment to offer him than to say : " it is worthy of Troyon." Those who desired 
to underrate his work, whilst, however, recognizing his incontestable qualities, said : 
"Without doubt it is good, but it is only a reflection, and I prefer the original." 
When Troyon died in 1865, the art critics proffered sympathy to Van Marcke, who, 
having no longer his accustomed counselor, would be much embarrassed. As usual, 
the critics were wrong ; the exact reverse resulted, and the artist achieved his 
personality. Normandy was his chosen sketching ground, where he purchased a farm 
and successfully speculated in raising herds of fat cattle. He painted these as lost in 
endless content, gravely chewing the cud of comfort, standing hoof-deep in lush 
grasses under the quietude of wide-spreading heavens. He placed his animals away 
from the reach of distempered weather, enclosing them in atmospheres so serene as 
to give a heavy dewfall to pasture lands. He died in 1891, and left no successor. 
His career was a splendid culmination. The greatest success recorded for such an 
event was in the sale of his effects. An increasing appreciation marks his work. 


T^HE art of illustration is that graphic representation which "sets forth in a clear 
*■ manner those aspects of scenes and incidents that no verbal discription, how- 
ever elaborate, can give." While the art is ancient, its evolution and application may 
be said to be modern — and ours by right of conquest. As the pioneer of that victory 
stands Vierge, who has been called the "father of modern illustration." He has stood 
unrivaled for a quarter of a century, and every stroke of his stylus is considered the 
production of a master. Gustave Flaubert compares the man of genius to a powerful 
horse tortured by the cruel spur and bit of routine, who, nevertheless, forges forward, 
bearing along with him his reluctant rider — humanity. Vierge has been the witness of 
his own apotheosis and the development of his art to the point of picturing living 
people in living attitudes, rendering through the simple media of black and white the 
very atmosphere and even hues of color. August F. Jaccaci has well defined his 
peculiar trend and preeminent gift : 

" Vierge is a realist in that he is a worshiper of truth ; but realist is a mislead- 
ing epithet, embracing as many sins as virtues. Far from the low realism of the com- 
monplace and nastiness is that realism of Vierge which beautifies all that it feeds 
upon, because it delights in dwelling on those elements of beauty and goodness exist- 
ing latent or revealed in all things. Perhaps the most personal, and thus the most 
strongly felt, trait of Vierge is his faculty of imparting a sort of heroic character — all 
his own — to his representations of reality. It seems as if there is more of the Moor 
than of the Spaniard in his nature, as if his work was a revelation of that fine race 
that knows how to drape itself in a rag, and on whose lips the honey of beautiful 
verses is born of a ray of sunlight. But his art is as naturally alert as it is dignified." 
Under a stroke of paralysis that smote his right side, he has been compelled to 
teach his left hand the craft of its brother. This slow process has at last resulted in 
satisfactory skill. He is not more than in life's prime, and gives pledge of deepen- 
ing the fountains of his inspiration. The field for the gifted illustrator is contem- 
poraneous with every phase and fact of life. The craving of the multitude is not for 
such knowledge of events as comes from a serious study of their rise and evolu- 
tion, a philosophical searching into the root-bed of historic growths ; but a swift 
comprehension of the speech and deeds of mankind pictorially presented ; a brilliant 
summary of the chapters humanity writes under the daily goings of the sun. The 
man who leads the art of illustration in these primal expressions must take large 
space on the horizon of the future. 


"I X THEN the Professor of Art History in the University of Breslau was asked his 
^ ' judgment of Vollon, he made reply : "The greatest painter of still life in the 
century." Again, Vollon has been termed "the painter's painter," so richly defined, 
so preciously pedantic is this artist. 

He was born in 1833 at Lyons, and is a pupil of Ribot. He was at first rejected 
by the Salon, but with unfailing courage knocked again and again against the clamps 
of professional stupidity. These were broken in 1865, when he was awarded a medal, 
in 1868 and 1869 came other medals ; in 1878 one of the first class. It was in this 
year that the ofFicership of the Legion of Honor fell to him. A study of two fish won 
the red ribbon ; this picture was purchased by the government, and is in the Luxem- 
bourg. In 1897 he was elected a Member of the Institute of France. He has founded 
a school of painting in which still life is raised to the dignity of history. The acces- 
sories to his themes are as finely handled as the propositions. "He paints dead salt- 
water fish like Abraham Van Beyeren ; grapes and crystal goblets like Davids de 
Heem, dead game like Frans Snyders." He is the master in the representation of 
freshly gathered flowers, crisp vegetables, copper kettles, weapons, and suits of 
armor. With breadth of treatment he obtains equally power of realization. Vollon 
amazed everybody at the Salon of 1876 with a single life-sized female figure, "A 
Fisher Girl of Dieppe," painted with exceeding power. 

In 1877 he appeared again in a new phase. Instead of pots, kettles, old armor, 
or jeweled glass filled with half-transparent fruits, he treats a landscape subject. 
It is a dreary reach of country, with long sweep of road, extending afar into the hori- 
zon, upon which a horseman is galloping ; a few houses at the side, giving human 
touch to the expanse. The chief values are found in the sky, where squadrons of 
clouds are scurrying before a furious wind, tumbling and torn. The blast, that whips 
the flying vapors, twists at the traveler's cloak, who, with bent head, seeks to gain 
his goal. It is a weird, impressive canvas, all the more so because a distinct 
departure from the path the artist is accustomed to tread. To be so versatile carries 
a temptation to superficiality, to which artists have not unfrequently yielded. Vollon 
never is less than perfect in the patient technique with which he unfolds and 
accents his theme. 


A GERMAN artist, whose rank is in the class with the Bonheurs. He was born at 
•*»■ Berlin, and killed in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. In his native city he was 
under Steffeck, and in Paris a pupil of the great Couture. For a number of years his 
studio was in Milan. His medals came in the years 1864 and 1869. The range of his 
subjects was wide ; in each example he manifested an equal faculty for successful treat- 
ment. It is unusual to find a Teutonic artist who can quickly adjust his canvas to such 
marked variations of expression. His "Ox Team," "The Deer Quarry," " FSte in 
Brittany," and "The Haygathering" show plastic power in an unusual degree. 
Whether handling figures or landscapes, he was equally happy. 

Two of his pictures are in the Luxembourg. Some years ago he exhibited in 
London, Suffolk Street Gallery, a work which firmly settled his grasp upon English 
regard. The scene represented Bavarian peasants bringing their cattle down from the 
mountains, in ease of manipulation, living postures, keen accuracy, supreme excel- 
lence of landscape, ranging from green valleys to mountain-peaks covered with snow, 
it was an example worthy of Troyon. 


A DAWN suddenly fading on the forehead of heaven ; a summer-tide swiftly 
-'*■ stemmed and frozen; a warrior, with his combat just fairly on, stricken down; a 
singer, his voice shattered into silence, while the sweeter half of the strain is yet in his 
soul. Thus Death lost to us Regnault, Fortuny, and Zamacois. He was born at Bilboa 
in 1840; was trained in Paris under Meissonier; entered the Salon in 1863, when he 
startled the art public with the brilliancy of a meteor. He was medaled in 1867. His 
first picture was the " Enlisting of Cervantes." In 1864 he set forth the " Conscripts in 
Spain" ; in 1866, "The Entrance of the Toreros" (painted in part by Vibert); in 1870, 
his remarkable canvas, " The Education of a Prince." 

Eugene Benson's monograph upon Zamacois carries the force of dramatic fervor : 
"Zamacois, with a manner almost as perfect as Meissonier's, is a satirist ; he is a 
man of wit. I should suggest the form and substance of his works as a painter by 
saying that he has done what Browning did as a poet when he wrote the ' Soliloquy of 
the Spanish Cloister.' . . . It is manifest that Zamacois admires Moliere ; that he 
appreciates the picturesque side of Victor Hugo's genius. Zamacois does with form 
and color what Tennyson does with words — that is to say, he combines them in a 
studied and jeweled style, to express his pleasure in intense and brilliant things. But 
he has wit, and no one would accuse Tennyson of that Gallic trait. Therefore, to make 
you acquainted with Zamacois, I must say he has a suspicion of malice that must be 
delightful to the compatriots of Voltaire ; that he is bold and positive in his conceptions 
and fine and elaborate in his expressions. 

"His color was pure and intense, his style finished and fine. It was not 
enough for him to make his point, but he must also make it as perfectly and completely 
as he possibly could. Like Moliere, with whose genius that of Zamacois displays a 
decided affinity, the effect of the artist's work was always allied with and supported by 
the extremest elegance of execution. He was fond of daring experiments of color, and 
his pictures were a perpetual amazement and delight to artists more timid and less 
original, who acknowledged in the fiery young genius from Bilboa one worthy to take 
his place among those masters whom Paris was proud to call her own, irrespective of 
their birth or blood. When the war-cloud burst over France, Zamacois stood with his 
future in his grasp and the shadow of doom upon him. After the wreck was cleared, 
when French art numbered its dead, there was to be supplemented to those who had 
perished upon the field of battle the Spaniard who had become a Parisian, and who, 
flying before the blasts of battle, had succumbed to the mortal malady which had 
prevented his serving with his brethren in the ranks." 

Under date of January 30, 1871, at Granada, Fortuny sends this message to 
Mr. W. H. Stewart : "I wish to write to you of the death of Zamacois, but I was so 
full of sorrow that my courage failed. I cannot yet believe that I shall never see him 
again, and it will be hard to fill his place in my remembrance." Mr. Stewart, writing 
to Baron Davillier, says : "I heard of Mariano Fortuny for the first time in January, 
1868. through Eduardo Zamacois, the much lamented and talented artist, who died at 
Madrid January 12, 1871, at the early age of twenty-nine." It was this brilliant artist 
who attended Mr. Stewart on his tour to Rome, that he might, in propria persona, 
present him to Fortuny. 

To symbol the art of Zamacois one must find an ancient Damascus blade of 
tempered steel with the sinister blue gleam on its edge, the hilt set with blood rubies. 

Wesley Reid Davis. 







(Joseph Louis Hippolyte) 

1 800-1 866 

No. J 

Military Sketches 

Pen-and-ink sketches. A squad of cavalry charging, an old man, and a 
group of military officers. 

Height, 9 inches; length, i2 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Edward John) 
No. 2 

The War in the East 


An episode of the war in the East. The scene is dramatic, and represents a 
field hospital where a wounded soldier has been brought for treatment. He lies on 
a litter over which bends a doctor of the Red Cross service, while several comrades 
hold the unfortunate so that the physician can better make his diagnosis. To the 
right stands a soldier with a water jug. 

Height, 9 inches ; length, la inches. 
Signed at the left. 


No. 3 


Pen and Ink 

This is a clever drawing by the able Frenchman, in his familiar manner and 
of a subject he delighted to work out. It represents a parade of famous, or infamous, 
foot soldiers of the sixteenth or seventeenth century, marching through Paris. The 
abandon and the swaggering air of these rapscallions are well expressed, and to the 
interest of the historical fact there is the dexterous use of the medium that has 
made the artist famous. 

Height, 13^ inches ; width, 83^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1869. 


No. 4 

A Plowing Match 


An original black-and-white drawing in body color. The scene is locally 
English and represents a bout between farmers at the furrows. In the foreground 
is a plowman with a team of three horses, and on the hillside others are dis- 
tributed. Groups of spectators watch the contest, and over all is a sky, gray and 

Height, 1 4 >^ inches ; length, 21 inches. 

Signed at the right. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. 5 
Corpus Christi 

A study in brown for a composition. Two figures in the center iiold up 
a crucifix. Two drummers follow. In front the Monks carry lighted tapers. 
A line of buildings is behind and on a sign is displayed "Cafe de Las Caseras." 

An interesting incident connected with the above study is mentioned in the 
monograph on Fortuny. 

Height, 15 inches ; length, 2}}i inches. 
Signed at the right. Dated 1869. 


No. 6 

Autumn. Castle of San Angelo 

Water G)Ior 

A dainty little landscape study by the famous master. The fall tints are 
happily suggested, and the remodeled mausoleum stands out in bold relief against 
a warm, glowing sky, with some softly suggested trees. 

Height, 6^ inches ; length, 9 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1864. 


(Comte Am^d^e de No^) 

No. 7 

The Commune 

"Water G)Ior 

Interesting sketch of some Paris characters, somewhat more serious than 
was usual with the famous Parisian caricaturist, so well known under the Third 
Empire. The two ragpickers are cleverly indicated and the color is just. Originals 
by this artist are rarely seen in this country. 

Height, 9J^ inches ; width, 8 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Paul Jean) 
No. 8 

On the Coast 

Water Q>Ior 

Characteristic scene on the Holland coast. Some heavy, stolid Dutch luggers 
with sails of red and yellow are in the center, while to the right is a lighthouse, to 
the left some rowboats. Over all is a gray sky with bits of light here and there. 

Height, \}X inches; width, ao^ inches. 
Signed at the right. Dated 1865. 


(Adolf Frederic Erdmann) 
No. 9 

The Stirrup Cup 

Water Color 

A delightful and thoroughly characteristic picture by the famous German 
master. It portrays two horsemen in coats of mail stopping before an inn, drink- 
ing from a big cup. They are on their steeds, beneath the shadow of a large tree ; 
and at the window of the inn, a woman and child sit looking at them. The men 
have all the heartiness and swashbuckle air of their time and the expression on their 
faces is remarkably well painted. The face of the trooper to the right of the 
picture is a study, being worked up to a high degree of finish, while the painting 
of the horses and the mail is no less able. The composition is interesting and 
the technique is astonishing in its detail, without the sacrifice of any of the larger 
qualities that go to the making of an important work. 

Height, 8j4 inches ; length, 12 inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1875. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. 10 

Study of Flowers 

Water O>lor 

A careful study from nature in the artist's masterly and highly searched 
manner. Some poppies with the long stalks and leaves, drawn on gray paper in 
body color. 

Height, 10 inches ; width, 8}4 inches. 
Seal at the left. 


No. U 

Monte Pincio 

Water Ojlor 

The scene is laid in the famous gardens of the Pincian Hills. In the distance 
Rome stretches out and St. Peter's is seen vaguely in the hazy light. Two cardinals 
in the center of the composition are meeting on the terrace and gravely bowing 
to each other with courtly elegance, their servants standing in groups behind them. 
Although the picture is small, it is treated with great simplicity and breadth and 
the color scheme is one of pleasing delicacy. 

Height, j^ inches; length, \2}i inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. J2 

Venetian Canal with View of Veronese's Tomb 

A familiar view of the well-known monument, rising up behind some houses 
in sunlight ; a bridge is to the right and a gondola and a group of trees to the left. In 
the right center there is a rowboat containing two men and a woman. The sky is 
blue with a suspicion of hazy, white clouds. Much detail is shown throughout the 

Height, 6}i inches; length, iiX inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 13 

Roman Youth Reading Horace 

Upon a long marble seat covered with skins and cushions, a young Roman sits 
reading a book. He is robed in white and purple, while the sunlight from the 
blue sky above him flecks the edge of his robe and sends some of its brilliancy 
on the stone floor, the rest of the figure and accessories being in cool shadow. 
There is the artist's usual skillful rendering of marble and textures, with much 
expression to the man's face, upon which plays a look of pleasant interest. 

Height, 6}4 inches ; length, 9)4 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1882. 


No. 14 

Cafe Chantant 

A wonderfully clever piece of character painting. On the stage of a pro- 
vincial concert hall a singer, dressed as a soldier, is performing his act. Beneath 
him are seen the orchestra and a few of the audience, each face and figure 
being a careful study from life. The backs of a man and a woman to the right 
are very expressive. A drummer, a violinist, and a flute player, are all worked 
up to almost photographic detail, and yet withal the panel is broadly treated. 

Height, 9>^ inches; length, 12;^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1876, 


No. 15 

River Seine at Mont -Valerian 

A beautiful glimpse of the attractive French river under an effect of early sum- 
mer, with tender greens and the sparkle of sunlight. The city stretches off to the 
right, some trees and a pleasure garden are to the left, and in the immediate fore- 
ground are a few boats, in one of which is a woman. Other boats dot the river here 
and there, and ducks are swimming about. The sky is beautifully painted, and 
the detail, though microscopic, is carried out broadly enough to avoid any feeling 
of dryness. 

Height, 8}4 inches ; width, 6)4 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1877. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. J6 
The Arquebusier 

The charm of Fortuny's amazing technique is nowhere more apparent than in 
this famous panel of a single figure of an old soldier who stands leaning on his rest 
or croc with one hand, while on his shoulder is the arquebus, the quaint, clumsy gun 
of the middle ages. He is also armed with a big sword. The soldier is dressed in 
the astonishing garb of the period. He wears a doublet of green, knee breeches of 
red velvet, blue stockings, and a steel breast-plate, the incongruity of which is 
emphasized by the exquisite fidelity of the painting, a wonderful piece of realism. 
The man-at-arms has a head fit for strategy and crime ; his rumpled hair and 
frowsy face betoken a dangerous foe. 

Height, 9'/i inches ; width, 6^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1871. 


(H. Humphrey) 
No. 17 

Banks of a River 

Mr. Moore has painted here a delightful little characteristically Japanese land- 
scape, intensely decorative and thoroughly realistic. The branches of a graceful 
tree curl and twist curiously across the front and top of the picture, while on 
the other side of the stream which crosses the panel is the flowering bank of a 
beautifully cultivated garden full of delicate color, with here and there some pagodas 
or sculpture. 

Height, io|/ inches ; width, 6^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 



1 834 -1 866 

No. 18 

Wild Flowers 

Water G>Ior 

A study of growing plants and bushes, with a bit of delicate distance to the 
left. The careful observation and severe analysis that always characterize this artist's 
work are apparent here, each detail being thoughtfully worked out and drawn with 
exquisite fidelity. 

Height, 9J^ inches ; width, 7^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1864. 


(Richard Parkes) 

No. J9 

View of Old Paris 

Water G>Ior 

A delicate, colorful little drawing of the river Seine, with the old bridge of 
stone leading to the Cathedral of Notre Dame. The quays are shown, also the road 
by the stream. Paris vaguely looms up in the distance. 

Height, 5^ inches; length, 8^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1827. 


No. 20 

Fisherman, Seville 

Water G>Ior 

A bit of river landscape, with a group of willow trees to the right, and in the 
center a boat in which a peasant stands fishing. On the bank beside him is a group of 
women and children sitting by and watching his efforts. Distant houses peep out 
through the trees at the back of the picture, while a blue sky flecked with white 
clouds is reflected in the river. 

Height, i4>i inches ; length, 21 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. 2J 

The Rest at the Studio 

Water G)Ior 

A characteristic composition by the dexterous Italian. The scene is the 
interior of a studio. A model has thrown herself down on a sofa in a pose much 
chosen by Boldini for his pictures. Her feet rest on a little taboret, and a white 
gown furnished opportunity for the skill of the artist in painting draperies. Behind 
the woman is an easel and behind that a piano, all property placed, leaving the 
interest concentrated on the figure. 

Height, 91/ inches ; length, 13^ inches. 
Signed at the left. Dated 1873. 


Died 1870 

No. 22 


"Water Color 

Two sturdy white horses are dragging a plow through the earth on a hillside. 
Apple trees are to the left, and in the distance is seen a little valley, a barn, and an 
apple orchard. The sky is of late afternoon gray, with a streak of light at the 
horizon. The horses are drawn and painted with consummate knowledge and 
much skill. 

Height, 10^ inches ; length, 20^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(G^za von) 
No. 23 

Farm Scene 

On a low, flat stretch of country is seen a group of farm buildings. The 
farm-yard is in the foreground and a pig is seen rooting therein, while some 
ducks are swimming in a nearby pond. Some sunlight finds its way through a 
gray sky, striking the white house and the haystacks. The figure of a child is 
to the left center. The picture is carefully painted in much interesting detail, 
though not without vigor and breadth. 

Height, 12^ inches ; length, 20^ inches. 

Signed at the center. Dated 1882. 



No. 24 
Fortuny^s Model 

An able sketch of a woman lying, full length, on a red draped divan. She 
is covered with a white-and-blue drapery. A bare arm is extended along the seat ; 
the light comes from the top and is interestingly distributed. It is a vigorous 
ebauche, deftly laid in and full of feeling. 

Height, 10 inches; length, 15 inches. 


No. 25 

English Landscape 

The subject is a hillside with bare trees. A general sense of autumn prevails. 
Through the middle of the picture runs a stream of water, and some ducks are to 
the left. The sky is gray, with a light streak along the horizon. The landscape 
forms are carefully drawn, the general anatomy of the trees being thoroughly under- 
stood and well expressed. The sobriety of the season, the general feeling of the 
time and place, are the result of careful observation and full appreciation of nature. 

Height, 14 inches; length, 18 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Raymundo dc) 
No. 26 

Woman and Parrot 

Engrossed with portrait work in recent years, it is seldom one has a chance 
to see genre pictures by this able Spanish painter, so that this work comes as a 
revelation. It represents a luxurious interior hung with tapestry, wherein a woman 
dressed in yellow, with an embroidered shawl hanging loosely over her shoulders, 
sits playing a guitar, her feet resting on an orange-colored cushion. On a perch 
beside her is a white cockatoo, who strains forward to catch the ribbons on the 
end of her instrument. Though broadly painted throughout, there is a pleasing 
sense of detail, and the head and hands of the woman are carried very far as to 
finish, suggesting work of the careful seventeenth century Dutchmen. 

Height, 19 inches; width, 15 inches. 

Signed at the left. 




No. 27 

Arab Fantasia 

A picture, one of the early envois sent by the artist to the Paris dealer Goupil, 
from Rome, and the first of his work that Mr. Stewart purchased, in which the 
seemingly impossible expression of terrific action has been realized. It represents 
a group of swarthy Arab warriors giving themselves up to a whirling, insane, 
howling dance. Some with long, decorative Arab guns are shooting at the earth ; 
others are swinging similar weapons about their heads, and they are regarded 
with great interest by a crowd of spectators, comprising sheiks, soiaiers, idlers, and 
others, who stand about in white and colored robes. One of the observers is mounted 
on his horse, the animal showing much nervousness. Fortuny has conveyed an 
astonishing sense of the action and wildness of the scene, faithfully reproducing the 
general character of the race. The picture has been called, with justice, " a veritable 
feat of dash of dazzling color and energetic movement." 

" Zamacois brought me word that the dealers had an oil painting by Fortuny, 
and I must at once go with him to see it. We started on the instant, and found, 
at the Rue Chaptral, the ' Fantaisie Arabe.' My companion (Zamacois) went into 
ecstasies, calling it 'fireworks,' 'a pearl,' 'jewels,' etc., at the same time whisper- 
ing to me to buy it, and not let it slip at any price." — Reminiscences of Fortuny, 
by IV. H. Stewart. 

Height, 20 inches ; length, 26 inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1867. 


No. 28 


Against an open window, looking yearningly into space, a beautiful young 
Alsatian maiden, dressed in the picturesque costume of her province, stands musing. 
The light coming through the casement illumines her face and dress, and is delight- 
fully arranged for pictorial purposes. The face has great charm, and the thoughts 
that are in her mind may easily be guessed. The painting is sympathetic, graceful, 
and full of poetic sentiment. 

Height, 2i|^ inches ; width, i8 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 29 

Women at Raphael's Tomb 

"Water Oilor 

The picture represents a corner of the Pantheon, in Rome, where the great 
Umbrian lies buried. Two women in the fashionable costume of a quarter century 
ago stand reading the inscription on the marble. The cleverness of the Italian 
school of water colorists has long been acknowledged, and the present example 
gives a reason therefor. The work is highly finished though kept broad, and the 
figures are drawn with astonishing cleverness, while all the detail is treated realisti- 
cally. The marble of the pillars, the carpet on the floor, and the many little objects 
of minor importance that go to make up the whole are all placed with artistic judg- 
ment and dexterity, There is also a feeling of light and air throughout the edifice. 

Height, 20 J4 inches ; width, \4}4 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. 30 

Boats at Poissy 

Water G)lor 

A characteristic group of old canal-boats moored to the bank of the Seine, at 
the famous village of Poissy. The lines are picturesque and the tones of the craft 
are sober, with here and there a note of bright color given to the boatmen and 
women. To the right, on the bank, some children are playing, while in the dis- 
tance a delicate line of shore is outlined in tender, hazy colors. The gray-blue 

sky is accented with soft white clouds. 

Height, 9)4 inches ; length, 13^ inches. 
Signed at the right. 



No. 3J 

Italian Peasant Girl 

Water G)lor 

A young girl in picturesque peasant dress stands with arms akimbo beside 
a well. The white head-dress and waist are in striking contrast to the dark red of 
the skirt and the deep blue of the scarf against the stone wall. Back of her is a 
sky of blue, with white clouds. The drawing is delicate and true in its expres- 
sion of femininity. 

Height, 20^/ inches ; width, 14^ inches. 

Signed at the upper right. Dated 1867. 


No. 32 


Water G>Iof 

A figure of a court jester, clad in a brilliant scarlet suit of tights and doublet, 
lolls asleep on a table covered with a green cloth that has partly been pushed to 
one side, where it hangs in big folds. One of the jester's feet is drawn up under 
him, the other hangs down along the edge of the table. In one of his hands, 
which are crossed on his lap, he holds a stick with a fool's head thereon. To 
the right is a large carved wood armchair, and behind the buffoon, on the wall, 
as a background, is a handsome piece of tapestry. The picture is highly finished, 
each detail being skillfully worked out, and all the surrounding still life has been 
carefully placed and as carefully executed. 

" Arcos made studies of many figures for his painting, ' The Court of Henry 
III.,' among these a 'buffoon.' The model who posed for such a person one day 
arrived in a complete state of inebriety. Having put on his costume, he fell asleep 
upon a table. At that moment Mr. Stewart entered the studio — he was fond of fol- 
lowing the work of the younger artists and encouraging them. With his usual good 
humor, seeing the sleeper, he exclaimed, 'He is perfect like this ; make a water 
color of him.' The greater part of the work was painted during this seance and 
the model's slumber. Mr. Stewart, desiring to purchase the picture, sent M. Arcos 
double the price fixed." 

Height, I9j4 inches; width, i^'/i inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1873. 


(Jean Baptiste Camifle) 

No. 33 

Ville D'Avray 

A glimpse of the favorite sketching ground of the great French master. To 
the left is a willow tree, and behind the stream that runs across the picture there rises 
a hill, on which a white house catches the sunlight. In the middle of the picture is 
the figure of a woman. The delicate, harmonious color-sense of the famous land- 
scapist is expressed here in his happiest manner. Mr. Stewart made a personal visit 
to Corot's studio in 1869 and purchased this example, since which time it has never 
left his possession. 

Height, ii>^ inches; length, 16^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 



No. 34 

Valley of the Toucques 

An attractive study of two cattle lying down in a field that spreads out to 

the distant hills in the background. A most harmonious arrangement of color gives 

much sentiment to the scene, and the cattle are indicated in a simple but masterly 
manner, characteristic of Troyon. 

Height, \2'/i inches; length, 17^^ inches. 
Seal at the left. 


(Charles Francois) 

No. 35 

Auvers on the Oise 

A sketch of smiling country under a brilliant summer sky is spread out before 
the spectator. To the right the river winds back to the distant hills, and is lost 
behind a line of trees, through which may be seen here and there the red roofs of 
picturesque village houses. A woman in the foreground walks toward the stream, 
driving some geese. The bank is full of verdure and grasses, painted in those 
soft, tender tones of green the artist knew so well. The landscape is drawn with 
consummate knowledge, with a full appreciation of the forms and subtleties of nature, 
while the disposition of light and shade is masterly. The master's artistic perception 
of beauty of line, of interesting motive, and appealing arrangement are all here. 

Height, 15^ inches; length, 26X inches. 
Signed at the left. Dated 1864. 


(Giuseppe de) 
I 846- I 884 

No. 36 

Lowlands Near Naples 

A flat stretch of water, with low-lying distance, and long graceful weeds in 
the foreground. A crane has started up at the right, and the sun coming through 
the clouds makes a blaze of light on the distant water. There is throughout a 
charming sense of pearly, luminous grays, while all the characteristics of marsh- 
land are faithfully portrayed. 

Height, 9^ inches ; length, 24 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1873. 


(Raymundo de) 
No. 37 

Woman and Guitar 

Seated in an easy chair in a garden, leaning back coquettishly, a Spanish 
lady is seated with a guitar. She is handsomely gowned in an evening dress of 
pink silk, while about her neck and shoulders is a red silk scarf. A rose-bush is to 
her right, and a tree to her left. The pose is graceful and natural, the woman 
bears the stamp of aristocratic elegance, and the painting is delicately carried out. 
Beautifully drawn hands, artistically painted draperies, and an agreeable, simple 
background of green combine to give an engaging result, and there is delightful 
finish everywhere, with the snap and sparkle of the brilliant school of which 
Madrazo is so distinguished a member. 

Height, i8X^ inches ; width, 14}4 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Joseph Henri Francis) 

I 823- I 876 

No. 38 

An Old Woman's Head 

A strong, vigorous portrait of an old peasant in cap and neckerchief is given 
with great faithfulness in a frank, personal way. The pathos of the hard life, the 
years of toil, and the patient suffering of poverty are all unmistakably expressed. 

Height, 20)4 inches ; width, 15 inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1843. 


(Jean Ltoa) 
No. 39 

Door of a Mosque, with Heads of Decapitated Rebels 

This picture represents the tragedy of a rebellion. Before a mosque at Cairo 
one looks through a partly opened oak door, which is elaborately ornamented, 
into the court. On the stone steps that lead up sits a sentinel clad in red, with 
his gun across his knees, a belt full of weapons, and in his hand a long pipe. He 
is in conversation with a janizary, who stands on guard with sword in hand and 
enormous pistols at his waist, costumed in a striped robe of yellow and orange, 
his arms, head, and shoulders protected by a mail of chain. Between them, piled 
up on the steps, are the heads of the Beys massacred by Salek-Kachef, all of 
them wonderfully realistic — pale and dripping as they have come from the necks 
of the offenders. Above the door hang three more ghastly trophies, a gruesome 
warning against rebellion. The delicate beauty of the architecture as seen through 
the open door, with sunlight and blue sky, serves to accentuate the somberness of 
the tragedy, while the careful detail and the wonderful elaboration of the artist's 
well-known methods have made the picture a faithful pictorial transcript of the 
barbaric customs of an astonishing race. 

Hamerton, in speaking of the above work, says: " Gerome governs himself 
so strongly as a painter that if he is immoral, it is not from irresistible impulses, but 
consciously and coldly. So with his love of the horrible — there is no violence, no 
expression of repulsion ; the severed heads lie at the door at Cairo, and the sentinel 
smokes his pipe. A common painter would have given us bystanders with horror 
on their faces. But in this very coldness there is something peculiarly fascinating and 

Height, 21 inches; width, 17^^ inches. 

Signed at the upper left. 


1 838 -1 874 

No. 40 
Arab^s Head 

A vigorous study, life-size, of an Arab with bared shoulders and a head-dress 
of white against a background of blue. The painting is a masterly sketch illustrating 
boldness and great rapidity of execution. 

Height, 22 inches; width, 18;^ inches. 

Seal at the right. 


1 840- 1 87 1 

No. 4t 

The Infanta 

A portrait of the Infanta, a young Spanish princess, dressed in an elaborate 
gown with long train of embroidered white and blue satin. The child holds the 
leash of an enormous hound, while in the background is her waiting-man, half 
in shadow, soberly clad in gray green, wearing a wide, white linen collar, and 
holding in his arm a broad-brimmed hat with a scarlet feather. A look of childish 
fear and anticipation on the Infanta is delightfully expressed, while the dog and 
man serve to complete a masterly composition. The floor is of marble tiles and the 
background of tapestry. 

Height, 2}% inches ; width, 15;^ inches. 

Signed at the upper left. Dated 1867. 



No. 42 

An Arabian Horseman 

Water Color 

A rider is seated on his horse ; with a shield slung over his back and gun 
in hand, he watches intently. Both rider and horse are painted with consummate 
skill and finished in great detail, being modeled carefully and with thorough knowl- 
edge. The foreground is a marsh, with long weeds and a pool of water, while in 
the distance a blue hill looms up. The dress is picturesque, and the trappings are 

brilliant in color. 

Height, 16 inches; length, 18;^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1867. 


No. 43 

A Spanish Garden 

Water G>lor 

A Spanish garden, behind which rise the roofs of a village ; the houses, 
with walls of white and pink tones, catch the sunlight and make brilliant notes 
of color. The garden is full of pots of flowers and various trees, and the treatment 
of the greens is solved with seeming ease. In one corner sits a man; near him 
is a child, while in the foreground are many ducks coming toward the spectator. 
Rico's command of his medium was never more apparent than in this work. 

Height, 12 inches; length, 19 inches. 
Signed at the left. 



No. 44 
Cafe of the Swallows 

Water Gslor 

Interior of a Moorish cafe. Upon a rug sits a group of Arabs, who are 
being served with coffee. Two columns to the right support an arch, and on 
a rod crossing therefrom some swallows are perched. The architectural detail in 
this picture is treated no less masterly than the figures in his other works, and 
with deft touches here and there, an idea of great detail is suggested. The result 
is brilliant and highly interesting, the shadows being cool and just, and giving a 
fine sense of perspective. 

Height, i^yi inches ; width, 15^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated li 


(Don German) 
No. 45 

Head of a Girl 

A charming rendition of young womanhood, the head and shoulders against 
a pink background. The dark, rippling hair is dressed with a circlet of flowers, 
and the eyes look roguishly out, while an exquisitely modeled hand holds a cloak 
of white fur from slipping away from the bare shoulders. Very freely and engagingly 
painted, and possessing evident spontaneity. 

Height, 22 inches ; width, 18 inches. 

Signed at the left. 



No. 46 

Chickens Feeding 

A Brittany woman in a white apron and cap stands feeding a flock of 
chiclcens. The row of trees in the baci<ground and some buildings are broadly 
indicated, while the artist has painted with great simplicity the sky and land- 
scape, giving much attention to the fowls, which have been drawn with no little 
study. The picture is characteristically simple and convincingly true, being unques- 
tionably executed before nature with great seriousness. 

Height, 18^ inches ; length, 22 inches. 

Signed at the left. 



No. 47 

A Normandy Cow 

This is a masterly example. The animal is seen in profile standing in a sun-lit 
field. The cow is brown ; has a white head, and spots on the legs. The construc- 
tion and anatomy are admirable, the drawing exact, and the textures realistic. A 
small line of hills showing in the distance makes an interesting background. 

Height, 22^ inches ; length, 33 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Francesco Paolo) 
No. 48 

A Seaside Idyl 

A charming, delicate conception. The scene represents a bit of seashore, 
the distant water bright with many brilliantly colored sails. In the center stand 
two figures amid some goats that are in advance of a herd farther back. The 
larger of the two figures is a young girl, partially nude, who bears across her 
shoulders a stick twined with leaves. Beyond her, separated by a white goat, is 
the figure of a nude boy who plays upon pipes. On his head is a dark hat, and 
about his neck is a chain. On a shore in the distance, vaguely indicated, is a 
group of figures. There is a feeling of cool sunshine, of balminess, and of the 
delight of the season, the lightness and gaiety of color keeping the canvas in a 
high key. 

Height, 25>^ inches; length, ^gyi inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1876. 


(Paul Jacques Aim6) 
No. 49 


A portrait of a charming young woman in evening dress, the corsage open at 
the neck, with a flower placed therein. Over her shoulders is a gray wrap, and on 
her head is a black hat with feathers. The face is very spirituelle, and the expres- 
sion one of much sweetness. The background is dark to the right and light to the 
left, while daintily arranged, in a decorative Arabesque line of gold, is the word 

Height, 29 inches ; width, 23^ inches. 
Signed at the left. 


(Joseph Theodore) 
No. 50 

Summer Landscape 

A quiet bit of marshland is shown. The late afternoon sun catches the trees on 
the side of a stream, giving them a warm, golden tone. They are reflected in the 
quiet water, which is mirror-like in its depth and placidity. A little red-and-white 
house caught by the light makes a strong spot of color in the distance. A hot, sim- 
mering sky carries out the sentiment of the season and place. 

Height, xSyi inches ; length, 29^ inches. 
Signed at the left. Dated 1868, 


No. 5J 

Woman and Elephant 

Seated before a table which is covered with a fine Oriental rug, a woman, 
dressed in gray, examines the carved statuette of an elephant. Her face is exquisitely 
drawn, and the painting of the dress is wonderfully managed, the sense of the 
figure beneath being thoroughly impressed. The accessories are in the masterly 
manner of the great Belgian-Frenchman, while all through the work are subdued 
tones and harmony. 

Height, 29 inches ; width, 23^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. 52 

One of the '' King's Moors 


Nothing could more fittingly demonstrate Fortuny's splendid mastery of his 
brush than this large, life-sized head of the negro Farragi (one of those called 
" King's Moors," who was the artist's model on his first journey in Tangiers), with 
brilliant contrast of the white-and-red burnous against his black skin. Both face 
and textures are painted in broad, vigorous strokes with thorough understanding of 
form and construction, and splendid appreciation of color. The white fabric with 
which the head and shoulders are enveloped is swept in in lines of great simplicity, 
every stroke being full of meaning, and the flesh painting is in the artist's best 
manner, large in conception and admirable in every way. To those who have only 
deemed the master capable of minute work this canvas will be a revelation, for he 
proves himself no less great in his life-size studies than in the dainty conceptions 
with which his name is associated. 

I was speaking one day to Mr. Stewart of a fine study of a negro's head 
which Fortuny had in his studio in Rome, and, upon his expressing a desire to 
own it, I wrote to Fortuny, who sent it immediately, begging Mr. Stewart to accept 
it as a token of his esteem. This head is the only one of the kind the famous artist 
made in the same dimensions. — Senor Raymundo de Madra^o. 

Height, 2gj4 inches ; width, 24 inches. 
Signed at the center. Dated 1861. 


No. 53 
Parisian FIower-Girl 

This canvas, the first of a series of pictures of the familiar street life of the 
Paris flower-girl, and the one that established the artist's reputation, represents a 
young woman wheeling along the street a cart full of brilliantly colored roses and 
other growing plants. The girl, both pretty and youthful, is dressed in a striped 
gown with blue apron and cap. The massing of the flowers is delightfully arranged, 
and there are careful detail and finish everywhere. 

Height, 36 J^ inches ; length, 39^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1872. 


(George John) 
1 842- 1 875 

No. 54 

Rural Life, England 

Water G)Ior 

The scene represents a lawn in front of an English country house. Two 
young women are reclining on the grass looking at some turkeys. At the side of 
them stands a lady in brown velvet, while a child in white leans on her arm. Back of 
them is the house ; still farther in the background are some trees and a distant view; 
some farm hands are to the right and left, and more turkeys are in the middle dis- 
tance. The work is carried out in every detail, and the scene is characteristically 

Height, 35 >^ inches; width, 26 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1871. 


(Baroness C de) 
No. 55 

View of Capri 

Water G>lor 

Rising out of the water is a group of buildings. A staircase rises from the 
stream, and on some of the upper balconies from the walls hang many strings of 
red peppers. The sky is blue, with white clouds. The architecture is of the quaint 
Italian style that has made the place picturesque and attracted the painters. 

Signed at the left. 

Height, 2 1 inches ; width, 1 5 inches. 


1 838 -1 874 

No. 56 

The Old Peasant 

Water G)Ior 

A simple, sincere study of an old Italian peasant seated on the broken 
capital of the column of a temple. The expression of age and the heavy stolidity of 
the class are faithfully caught, while the treatment is in pure wash, painted directly 
and with the man's usual amazing command of his medium. The treatment of the 
head is broad, though conveying an idea of great finish, and the dress is treated in 
simple masses with the certainty of a master. 

Height, 22 inches; width, 16 inches. 

Signed at the upper right. Dated 1867. 


No. 57 

Pond at Meaux 

Water G)Ior 

The tower and walls of a church form the background of the composition; 
here and there are tree forms that come up against the sky. In the foreground 
some boys sit beside a pond, which reflects the bank and the green growing on its 
edge. An extremely interesting variety of greens, and the arrangement is picturesque. 
There are also effective notes of color in the old walls of the distant buildings. 

Height, 12 inches; length, 19 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 58 

Qichy Square, Paris 

A view of the famous square in Paris, seen under a characteristic cloud-filled 
sky. To the left the statue of " Marshal Moncey and the Dying Soldier " stands out, 
while the streets are full of action and the bustle of the French capital. The stages, 
drays, flower-women, and denizens of the quarter are all true to life. On the walls 
are the familiar signs of the different tradespeople. It is truly a glimpse of the center 
of the Quartier Clichy. 

Height, 23 14' inches; length, 38 inches. 
Signed at the left. Dated 1874. 


(Joseph Thiodotc) 
No. 59 

Winter Landscape 

This is an interesting composition, giving the view of a road vanishing off 
in perspective under the effect of a heavy fail of snow. To the right is a grove of 
trees on a high banlc; to the left a hedge and a house, some other habitations stretch- 
ing off in the distance. There is a fine feeling of the season, with crisp atmosphere, 
delightful drawing of bare trees and landscape forms. While the color is soft and 
harmonious, the canvas is full of rare bits of attractive painting that make it exception- 
ally interesting. 

Height, 22 inches ; length, 34 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1868. 


(Francesco Paola) 
No. 60 

The Turkey Girl 

On a hillside, in the springtime, a young Italian girl leans against a deco- 
rative, blossoming tree, and with a face full of vague yearning looks out of the 
picture. Turkeys are about her ; one is perched on a tree, and a large one, with 
outspread wings, is in the foreground. A flowering branch is near her, and all 
through the canvas there is a consciousness of spring that gives out a feeling of 
soft, balmy odors and growing vegetation. The painting is full of delicate color 
of a highly decorative sort, such as this artist delights in, together with a cap- 
tivating cleverness of brushwork. It is Italian from the figure of the pretty girl to 
the deep blue of sky, the brilliancy of greens, and the pink of the blossoms. 

Height, 2$'/i inches; length, 35 J^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1876. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. 61 
Court of Justice, Alhambra 

In a courtyard at the Alhambra, looking back into a beautiful interior, some 
prisoners are stretched out, their arms manacled and their feet in stocks. A dusky 
sentinel, clad in a white robe and red burnous, armed with warlike weapons, squats, 
in brilliant, shimmering sunshine, on guard over his prisoners. In the center back- 
ground sits a figure on an Oriental rug, and farther in the background and shadow 
of the alcoves are other figures, while a distant window opens on the delicate greens 
of a garden. In the foreground, surrounded by a decorative tile border, is a circular 
fountain, filled with limpid water. To the right are some birds, and two gorgeous 
saddles and trappings on wooden stands. Cool shadows on the white marble 
contrast with the brilliant streak of sunshine, which is fairly dazzling in its inten- 
sity as it strikes the right of the picture. The drawing and painting of the intricate 
traceries and carvings, the hanging lamps, and the gay ornamentation of the Moorish 
interior are all wonderfully expressed and ably painted. As an architectural study 
it is delightful, for it has the truths of perspective and construction interpreted 
through a genuinely artistic temperament. 

Height, 30 inches ; width, 23^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 187 1. 


No. 62 

Lady in Yellow 

Figure of a young woman seated on a divan. She is dressed in yellow, and 
has a dog in her lap. About her neck is a ruff, and on her head a blue velvet hat with 
a white feather. The figure is charmingly posed, the light falling on one side of her 
head, the rest of which is in shadow. The sweet face is dignified and tender in its 
well-bred expression, and the painting is executed with rare grace and delicacy. 

Height, 36^ inches; width, 21^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Lton Joseph Florentin) 
No. 63 

Neapolitan Peasants at the Famese Palace 

This is an unusually interesting and important example of one of the rare, 
moderate-sized easel pictures by the distinguished Frenchman, and which was one 
of the successes of the Salon of 1866. A crowd of picturesque Italian country 
people are arranged along the stone base of one side of the palace, under a great 
iron-barred window. Lying fast asleep, a dark-skinned, sturdy young man in a 
blue cloak is stretched at full length ; by his feet are a copper kettle and some 
clothes in a bundle. Three women in white waists and head-dresses are to the 
right, their faces full of expression and painted in delightful detail. To the left an 
old woman sleeps and a young man and girl lean against a post. On the stone 
pavement at their feet is a beautifully painted figure of a handsome little boy, fast 
asleep, his head on his arm and one hand at his face. Nothing could be more 
dexterously executed than the painting of this lad, clad in a jumble of garments, 
but with a feeling of his form beneath. The sense of youth is conveyed in every 

Height, 23^ inches ; length, 39;^ inches. 
Signed at the left. Dated 1865. 


No. 64 

Crystal Bowl and Fruit 

A still-life painting of a large crystal bowl standing on a table, which is 
draped with a red velvet cloth. There are some green and black grapes with two 
pears, all of which are executed with the artist's usual ease and freedom of paint- 
ing, being swept in, in certain strokes, with great richness and depth. 

Height, 2'yyi inches ; length, 36^ inches. 
Signed at the right. 


(Ferdinand Victor Lton) 
No. 65 

The Kitchen in the Castle 

This picture depicts a scene from the middle ages wherein my lord's men of 
the kitchen are preparing the repast for the goodly company upstairs. Five serving- 
men are seen, two of whom are preparing a deer for the spit ; another is plucking 
a fowl and talking to a great greyhound ; still another stands over the fire, while 
the last is bringing in another animal on his shoulders. The work is realistically 
executed and full of character. 

Height, i&yi inches • length, 58 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Henri Louis) 
No. 66 


A French cavalry charge is depicted, the composition being filled with horse- 
men in excited action. In the left foreground are a number of dead English and 
French soldiers mingled with horses. Behind, a general on a white horse is charging 
forward, and beside him may be seen a detached group of combatants of both armies. 
The picture gives a fine idea of the horror of battle, and throughout there is much 
spirited movement, with fine suggestions of great masses of troops. 

Height, 31^ inches ; length, 47^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 


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(Ernest Ange) 
No. 67 

The Pont Neuf, Paris 

A glimpse of old Paris. The view is from the well-known bridge. Many 
important structures showing architectural detail form the background. Strongly 
silhouetted against an evening sky is seen the statue of Henry IV. In the fore- 
ground, along the river bank, is a line of bath-houses. A bateau mouche on the river 
and omnibuses passing over the bridge give action and interest to the composition. 

Height, 25^ inches ; length, 32 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1884. 




No. 68 

Courtyard, Alhambra 

A vigorous study of old Spanish buildings and a courtyard. The walls of the 
buildings are strongly illuminated by the sun, and a laurel tree in blossom rises above 
the red-tiled roofing. In the foreground are two pigs rooting in the soft earth, 
while to the left of the composition are a number of chickens. Two women and a 
child are spreading clothes in the background. A sky of intense blue is broken by 
gray-white clouds. 

Height, 43^ inches ; width, 34^^ inches. 

Seal at the left. 


(Paul Jacques Aime) 
No. 69 

The Wave and the Pearl 

"La Vague et le Perle," by Paul Baudry, exhibited in the Salon of 1863, holds 
a place of honor upon the walls. Though, doubtless, its subject is familiar to many, 1 
may briefly describe it as a nude figure of a young girl, lying with her back toward 
us at the edge of the ocean, and beyond her a silver-crested, emerald wave rising and 
shutting out the horizon completely. The girl looks as though but a moment before 
cast up by the waves, not dead, but living, smiling over her shoulder with a half- 
turned face, as though the sea was her element, and the incoming waves her breath 
of life. It is of no consequence from what Persian story Baudry drew this quaint 
conceit, if from any ; the picture is its own raison d'etre, independent of explanation 
and without a title. It is one of the artist's masterpieces, and in the feeling of 
mirthful, exuberant animal life is a reminder of some things of Correggio at Dresden. 
Its execution is quite brilliant. The line of the body is rhythmical, harmonious, 
pliable, giving to the form the effect of living, palpitating beauty. — John C. Van 
Dyke, The Art Review. 

" At the time of the war this young master was in his full glory ; absorbed by the work of decorating 
the Grand Opera, he produced few pictures, and in spite of his desire to obtain one of his works, Mr. Stewart 
could not find one. Chance came to his aid and helped him well. Baudry had exhibited at the Salon of 1863 
the ' La Vague et le Perle,' a picture which was the success of the year ; the Empress Eugenie bought it and had 
it placed in her boudoir in the Tuileries, where it remained until the events of 1870. Fearing then that her 
personal property might be confiscated by the new government, she caused this picture and some other valuable 
objects to be taken to the house of a friend in the rue Fran(^ois Premier. The Republican Government did seize 
the private property of the imperial family, and a lawsuit began, which the Empress won later. Meanwhile 
Baudry's picture remained hidden in an attic, and it seemed that the dust might cover forever the graceful and 
supple form of his creation and that shining look which, as a critic says, ' pursues the spectator for a long time.' 

" MM. Goupil having learned these facts, informed Mr. Stewart of them, and said he might obtain this 
masterpiece. After long negotiations a bargain was struck, and the picture handed over to the great collector, 
but on the express condition that it should be shown to no one until the trial, which was then going on, should 
bo ended. The delivery was executed in the most mysterious manner. The transfer took place at dawn of a 
winter's day during a snow squall ; the precious canvas, wrapped up in coarse blankets, hidden from the eyes of 
even those who carted it, was placed, when it reached the mansion, in the Cours la Reine, in an out-of-the-way 
room, the door of which for a long time opened only for friends whose discretion had been tested." 

Height, 3J inches ; length, 70 inches. 

Signed at the upper left. Dated 1862. 


No. 70 

Gipsy Fortune Teller 

A composition representing a young girl incredulously listening to an old gipsy 
who is reading her palm. Behind the girl is her comrade, who, with her hands 
on her companion's shoulders, listens with a look of mingled fear and interest. Both 
the young women are dressed in the fashionable toilets of the day, while the old crone 
is in a red hood and cloak. In the background is a forest, through which the sky is 
gleaming. Though large and vigorously painted, the work shows careful finish and 
much detail of modeling, while the faces of the three figures are very expressive. 

Height, 44 inches ; length, 56 inches. 





No. 71 

The Landlord 


A truthful lead-pencil drawing of a typical German landlord, who is standing 

before the door of a country inn, smoking his pipe. This is a clever character study 

from the famous German painter, whose brush has depicted so many realistic scenes 

of life in the Fatherland. 

Height, 18 inches; width, 12 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Daniel Vierge Urrabicta) 
No. 72 

The Bridle Path, Bois de Boulogne 


A characteristic pen-and-ink sketch by the "Father of Modern Illustration." 

The scene represents the fashionable thoroughfare during the time of the Empire. A 

party of horsemen dash by, and several of the gentlemen are bowing to equestriennes 

approaching from an opposite direction. The certainty of touch that has made the 

name of Vierge famous is all here, and the clever arrangement of composition, the 

introduction of innumerable figures, give a personality only found in the work of 

this able Spaniard. 

Height, 17 inches; width, \4'/i inches. 
Signed at the center. 


No. 73 

Woman Seated 


A drawing in pen and ink and sepia wash, representing an attractive young 
woman lying back in a chair. The execution is facile, and the line-work has been 
drawn with an easy grace and in a comprehensive manner. 

It was during a trip to Naples in 1863 that Fortuny became acquainted with 
Morelli, a Neapolitan painter, whose work he had noticed at the exposition in 
Florence in 1861 ; he thought highly of him personally and of his talent, and was 
always his friend. — Baron Davillier, Life of Fortuny. 

Signed at the right. 

Height, 1 1 ^ inches ; width, 8^ inches. 



1 838- 1 874 

No. 74 

Arab at Prayer 


An Arab stands in devout attitude at the base of a pillar. In his belt are 
several pistols. The study is quite incomplete, only the feet and head, which are 
bare, being advanced to completion, but the drawing is most interesting as showing 
the artist's mode of procedure, and there may be seen therein his frankness and 
certainty of touch, together with his artistic conception and thorough mastery of 
his brush. 

Height, 24 inches ; width, 1 7 inches. 

Seal at the right. 


(Jean Louis Ernest) 

No. 75 

Italian Armor, Sixteenth Century 

Black and White 

Everything that the famous French master touched, from the simplest study 
to his most elaborate picture containing many figures, is not without great research 
and thoughtful, scholarly treatment. No subject was too insignificant for Meis- 
sonier to take pains with, for in everything he labored faithfully. The present 
black-and-white sketch is a study of a suit of Italian armor of the sixteenth century, 
which is among the treasures of the Louvre. The drawing is faultless, the detail is 
carefully worked out, and the result is perfect. 

Height, 9 inches; width, 55^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Jean Louis Ernest) 

No. 76 


Black and White 

A study in great detail of a beautifully chased suit of French armor of the 
seventeenth century. The workmanship is all brought out in almost photographic 
minutiae, and the sketch is characteristic of the painstaking elaboration of the 
master of detail and finish. 

Signed at the right. 

Height, 10 inches ; width, 7 inches. 





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(Louis Eugene) 
No. 77 

Off for the Hunt 

Water G)Iof 

A group of men and women on horseback, in hunting costume, are seen 
dashing along the road, eager for the chase. Brilliant in color and with considerable 
movement and spirit. 

Height, 521^ inches ; length, 10 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1864. 


(Chevalier Guillaume Sulpice) 

1 804- 1 866 

No. 78 

Small Talk 

(De la tribu des Badinguet) 

Water Gslor 

A caricature of the secret police of the time of Emperor Napoleon III., nick- 
named " Badinguet " ever since he was a pretender and prisoner at Fort de Ham. 
Two figures clad in nondescript costume are freely drawn and painted broadly in 
harmonious colors. 

Height, \2'/i inches; width, Syi inches. 

Signed at the left. 


1 826- 1 889 

No. 79 
San Giovanni Laterano 

Water Color 

A cardinal has been making a visit of state. He is just leaving, and several 
priests have accompanied him to his coach. Servants assist the prelate to enter. 
One holds the door, another takes up the trailing gown, and others group them- 
selves about him obsequiously. Beyond is a stretch of blue hills and the white 
walls of the famous church. Interesting both historically and artistically. 

Height, 8j^ inches ; length, 14^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. 80 

Gipsy Caves, Granada 

A study of an old thatched hovel, against the door of which are two women. 
The foreground is in deep shadow, while the houses are in full sunlight. There is 
much depth of color and powerful, vigorous painting, executed frankly, and with 
great simplicity. 

Height, T% inches ; width, 5^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 8J 

House at Naples 

The subject is a typical house in the poorer quarter. Around the open door- 
way a group of children are playing ; to the left is a barrel, and to the right a chicken 
coop. From a window above hangs a piece of bright fabric, and flowering plants 
are on the window ledge. 

Height, 6^ inches ; width, 4% inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. 82 

The Beach at Etretat 

With his astonishing eye for the picturesque, this artist, by the natural arrange- 
ment of a few figures and boats on the pebbly beach of this French watering-place 
and fishing village, has made an exquisite little picture. The old fishing craft 
of many colors are on the shore, and are indicated broadly yet with microscopic 
finish; the sails, spars, ropes, and impedimenta being painted in minute detail. In 
front, and to the right, a fish-wife, whose dress has been caught by the wind, is 
walking along the beach, carrying a child, while immediately in the foreground a 
little boy is lying at full length on the pebbles. The sea, which is of deep blue, 
is swept with wind clouds. 

Height, 5^ inches ; length, ^% inches. 


(Auguste von) 
No. 83 

A Market in Hungary 

The scene represents a country market. Near an old building is assembled a 
number of peasants, who are seated about on the ground and on benches. To the 
left are some horses and wagons. All is very broadly painted in agreeable colors and 
with great care as to details, the artist being known as the "Austrian Meissonier." 

Height, 5^ inches ; length, 9 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. 84 

The Tarpeian Rock, Rome 

A series of terraces of the cliff of the Capitoline Hill, crowned by a building 
of pink stucco, all in bright sunlight, under a blue sky flecked with white clouds. A 
cart drawn by two donkeys, some hucksters, and a little dog are seen in the fore- 
ground, while at the lower edge of the composition are a flight of steps and a 
stone post. Though the panel is small, every detail is carried out faithfully, and 
the treatment is a marvel of dexterous technique. 

Height, 6yz inches ; length, 1 1 inches. 

Signed at the left. 




No. 85 

Breakfast in the Old Convent Yard 

This modest little panel is an extraordinary example of detail painting and dis- 
plays the remarkable facility of the great Spaniard. The scene represents a courtyard 
of an old convent ; the walls of the building, made a radiant white by the sunshine, 
form an interesting background. The tiled roof of the ancient edifice throws cool, 
bluish shadows, as does a daintily suggested grapevine to the left. Behind, and seen 
above the wall, is a dense grove of orange trees, while a warm summer sky is broken 
with white clouds. A group of cavaliers, who have halted on their journey, are seated 
at a table breakfasting, and, although of minute proportion, are painted with exquisite 
detail as to costume and all accessories. The expression of satisfaction, the postures, 
and the general arrangement of the four men are all wonderfully realized. Some 
chickens about the table peck at the crumbs, while by a distant door a serving-man 
talks to a peasant, near whom are two sedan chairs, evidently belonging to a lady 
who leans pensively on the balcony, gazing at the cavaliers seated at the table. 
A number of large water jars are ranged along the right side of the picture, against 
the shadow of a building, from which hangs a lamp. 

Height, \o'y4 inches ; length, 13^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 



No. 86 
The Snowball 

In a pathway of a woods are two men dressed in brilliant colored costumes 
of the middle ages. They have thrown a snowball, which a dog is chasing in 
full cry. There is an effect of evening light on the snow ; the animal is full of 
expression and painted with the wonderful detail so characteristic of the brilliant 
young genius, whose untimely death at twenty-nine was so distinct a loss to the 
cause of art. 

Height, lYi inches ; width, 55^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1868. 


No. 87 

The Woodcutter 

Water Color 

A summer landscape, painted in the village of Meaux, France. In the fore- 
ground are a woodchopper, a wheelbarrow, and a group of children ; while behind 
him, to the middle of the composition, rise two poplar trees. To the right and 
left, groups of houses are discernible, while over all is a brilliant, flecky sky, with soft 
white clouds. The greens are skilfully managed in a variety of tones, running from 
the brilliant color of the trees in the immediate foreground to the tender tones in 
the distance, the whole being treated in pure wash and very simply. 

Height, 14^ inches; width, 21 inches. 


Died 1870 

No. 88 

Landscape and Cows 

"Water Color 

A pastoral scene, with cattle and distant blue hills. At the right center are 
some trees and a stone wall. The cows are well drawn and modeled, and the fore- 
ground is painted with much fidelity and care. A gray-blue sky lends interest to 
the composition, which, as a whole, is most satisfactory. 

Height, I2j^ inches ; length, 20 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Augustc von) 
No. 89 

Hungarian Peasant Wagon 

The admirable methods of this able painter are seen to great advantage in 
this small, though broadly executed picture of two donkeys harnessed to a peasant's 
cart, in which are seated two children. The place is a field, with stacks of grain 
and heaps of pumpkins. The time is nearly midday, and the strong light from a 
cloudless blue sky gives a wealth of warm color to the scene. 

Height, loJS^ inches; length, i^}4 inches. 
Signed at the right. Dated 1878. 


No. 90 

Pond in the Forest of Fontainebleau 

This is an unusual vista of the famous wood, but no less true than those of 
more familiar aspect. Instead of the heavy, sturdy oaks generally painted, there are 
some white birches and delicate, graceful tree-forms, with light bits of green and 
trailing branches. Bare rocks show here and there, contrasting with the darker 
greens of the undergrowth, and in the foreground, among the long sedge grasses, 
a woman is filling a bucket with water. The distance is tender and the sky filled 
with beautifully modeled cloud-forms. It is unnecessary to add that no detail has 
been spared that could make the composition complete, and throughout there is an 
amazing sense of the brilliancy of light and air. 

Height, II inches; length, ipj^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 




No. 9i 

Rosa Contadina 

Water G>lor 

An Italian girl leans against a wall. Her head drops on her breast, and in her 
hand she holds some roses. The head is finished in great detail, and the rest of 
the figure is painted with much freedom. The wall behind her is very delicate in 
color, being almost white. This is a characteristic example of the master. 

Height, iT)4 inches; width, io}4 inches. 

Signed at the upper right. Dated 1867. 


No. 92 


Water G>Ior 

M. Rico has caught the sentiment and sparkle of the light and brilliancy of 
Spanish sunlight, and treated this picture with much freedom and dash. The scene 
represents a garden, with the town in the distance. To the right is a house, with a 
wall of faded red that glows warm and bright in the sunlight, and in front of it is 
a leafless tree, the drawing and painting of which are most clever, showing wonder- 
ful command of the medium. In the middle of the composition two donkeys stand, 
and from the gate a woman is seen coming out. She wears a bright red shawl, 
that adds the necessary note of color. 

Height, 12 inches ; length, 19 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 93 

Remembrance and Regrets 

This composition of a single figure is very characteristic of the artist's well- 
known manner. It represents a beautiful Parisienne dii Haute Monde, exquisitely 
gowned in white. She sits on an easy chair, resting her head on one hand, and 
holding a letter in the other. Beside her, on a dressing table, a mirror reflects 
her head. On the left some wraps and a parasol are carelessly placed. The face, 
full of thoughtful tenderness, is troubled, and at a glance one may read the story as 
conveyed in the title. 

Height, 24 inches ; width, 18 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


1 838 -1 874 

No. 94 
Arab Reclining on a Divan 

Water G>lor 

A richly dressed Arab, with a sword in his girdle, half seated and half lying 
on a divan. Beside him is a taboret with a cafetiere and cup. A gun-rack with 
richly ornamented weapons occupies the wall. The figure and accessories are 
painted with a brisk and accurate touch and with great fidelity to detail, while the 
surroundings are washed in with great breadth and vigor of effect. 

Height, 27X inches ; width, 18^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1869. 


No. 95 

Cafe Ambulant 

This is a fine study of a characteristic street scene somewhere in the Latin 
quarter of Paris. All the actors of the little comedy are there in unconscious 
attitude, preoccupied each with his own affairs. The shabby patrons of the peram- 
bulatory coffee-stand, the jaunty, careless art students, the gaping tinker's boy, the 
gossiping women, and the busy cobbler in his bric-a-brac stall, are all treated with 
great fidelity and a rare quality of observation, enriched by a keen sense of humor. 
While the artist has paid the strictest attention to detail, and has painted every object 
with wonderful accuracy, he has preserved a delicacy of atmospheric effect, a charm 
of color, and a distinction of tone which command the highest admiration. 

Height, 19X inches; length, 34^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1878. 


(Francesco Paolo) 
No. 96 

Spring ^ 

In a bright summer landscape, on a hillside crowned with a large stone building 
and covered with a growth of underbrush and trees, lies a cabbage garden. A pretty 
girl tending a flock of turkeys has been met on her way home by an ardent swain, 
who, with rustic fervor, tries to steal a kiss. The figures are executed with a facile 
and accurate touch, the turkeys are painted with great cleverness, and the tender 
green tones of the cabbages, so difficult to portray properly, are admirably realized. 
All the vigor and fertile invention of this skillful Italian painter are accentuated in 
this picture. 

Height, 2oX inches ; length, }} inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1876. 


(Alexandre Gabriel) 

No. 97 

Death and the Woodman 

The subject is chosen from the well-known fable of La Fontaine. On a 
rock in a forest, at sunset, sits white-robed Death, and beside him the woodman, 
wretched and poverty-stricken, in an attitude of supreme dejection. He has asked 
the grim specter to relieve him of his troubles, and, now the dread terror is so near 
at hand, he is overcome with fear and filled with a desire to live. 

_. , Height, 38 inches ; width, 23 inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Jean Baptiste Camille) 

No. 98 


A pleasant glade in early summer twilight. To the right, young trees stand 
out a little from the forest. At the foot of two trees, at the left, are two women, 
one of whom is nude and is seen in shadow; both figures are merely notes in the 
landscape. A soft, silvery distance stretches away in the middle of the picture, 
and a sky full of luminosity is made brilliant by the setting sun. There is a fine 
sense of enveloping atmosphere in this little masterpiece, an example in which Corot 
is seen in his most poetic mood. 

Height, 23 inches ; width, 16^ inches. 

Signed at the left. 




No. 99 

The Woodcutter, Forest of Fontainebleau 

A glade in the forest of Fontainebleau, in the clearing of which a wood- 
cutter piles up some wood. In the middle distance is a pond, beyond which, on 
high ground, is a group of buildings, and to the left is a group of fine old trees rich 
in autumnal colors and the warm glow of the late afternoon sun. The tree-forms 
are carried out with conscientious care and with rare analytic power, while the 
drawing of the branches and tree-trunks is no less accurate and masterly. There is 
a fine feeling of atmosphere throughout the work, great distance, and a feeling of the 
season of the year. 

Height, 2^yi inches; width, 2\% inches. 

Signed at the left. 



No. 100 

The Lane 

A summer landscape, showing the turn of a lane in the woods ; the sunlight 
gleaming through the trees and lighting the ground here and there. A man and 
child are seen coming down a decline at the left, and to the right, just beyond the 
turn of the lane, is a woman with a basket on her arm. There is a sense of 
depth and sobriety to the greens, with beautiful tree drawing and construction, and 
a feeling of the solemn stillness and attractive loneliness of the woods is poetically 
and engagingly expressed. 

Height, 2 J inches; width, 19 inches. 

Signed at the left. 



No. JOI 

Two shrewd little hunchbacks in quaint costumes sit on a table. One, his 
face bright with mischief and wit, has been playing a game of chess with a 
jester, who sits facing him and whom he has just checkmated. The court jester 
is clad in brilliant scarlet, with cap and bells, and he leans in contemplative mood, 
resting his chin on his hand. The background is a fine piece of tapestry, and 
the table is covered with a sumptuous Oriental rug. A handsome leather chair 
is to the right ; on this is a fool's baton, while a glove lies on the floor. The 
light, which falls on the figures, produces a striking effect. 

Height, 19^ inches; length, 34 inches. 
Signed at the right. Dated 1867. 


1 838- 1 874 

No. J02 

The Masquerade 

Water Color 

An important and characteristic composition, showing the great facility of 
the artist and his originality of invention. The scene is laid in the garden of the 
Tuileries. On a stone seat a Harlequin stands scraping his kit, and in front of 
him is a group of two masked women and two men, one of whom is a Moor, 
in gorgeous robes and turban, and the other, in wig and knee breeches, leans 
jauntily on a long cane. To the right two men lean over a marble balustrade. In 
the distance many maskers are dancing. There are great brilliancy of sunlight and 
a sparkle of color throughout, and the important center group is worked out in 
much detail. 

Height, \T/z inches ; length, 24;^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1868. 


(Paul Jacques Aime) 
No. 103 

Fortune and the Child 

This picture, which is a reduction of the famous painting in the Luxembourg, 
Paris, represents two figures, a woman and a child, seated on the side of a fountain. 
Both are nude, though under and behind them are some draperies. A landscape 
stretches out in the background, and a group of trees are to the right. The wheel 
of fortune, with chain and padlock, lies at the woman's feet. The flesh tones are 
exquisite, and the face of the woman is of idyllic beauty, painted with consummate 
ability and tenderness. 

Height, 32J/ inches ; width, 2}]4 inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1853. 


No. 104 

River Seine, at Bougeval 

A beautiful glimpse of the river at the quaint little town near Paris, taken 
at its most attractive season. The stream passes through charming country and 
beside a fine old formal garden, with square-cut box hedge and handsome stone 
gates. The foliage indicates early summer, with dainty, sparkling greens and long 
tangle of rushes in the foreground. The shadows are reflected in the water, and 
in the middle of the river is a punt in which are a man and two women. The 
figures are delicately suggested, and give the touch of needed color. The sky is 
blue, with a few white clouds, and the painting is fascinating in its wonderfully 
dexterous handling. 

Height, 2 1 Yz inches ; width, 1 8 inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1874. 


(Paul Jean) 
No. 105 

Dead Calm 

A motive, in which this admirable painter is thoroughly at home, represents 
a perfectly quiet river, with the low, flat Holland land in the distance, and here 
and there the characteristic red-tiled roofs. Three big sailing vessels lie listlessly 
drifting ; their sails, now and then caught by sunlight, are flapping idly and are 
reflected in the water. A ship's boat is pulling off from one of the bigger crafts. 
An old buoy to the left is motionless, and against the shore and rocks to the 
right the water barely ripples. 

Height, 25^ inches; length, 43 >^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1868. 



No. 106 

A Street in Tangiers 

Water Color 

A group of Arabs lazily reclining under the shadow of a wall in a dingy street. 
To the right is a vista of another street, that goes off at right angles through archways 
enlivened now and then by full sunlight. A horse stands to the extreme left of the 
picture, and beside him two Arabs are talking. Above is a window with tracery of 
carved woodwork. A figure in the foreground, for which Henri Regnault served 
as model, stands with bared shoulders, giving the artist a chance to show his able 
treatment and modeling of flesh. The bare feet and legs of another Oriental lying 
down, further demonstrates M. Fortuny's dexterity with the brush. The story of 
Mr. Stewart's acquisition of this picture is interesting. Fortuny had heard a great 
deal about the great French painter Meissonier, but had never seen his work except 
through photographic reproductions. Mr. Stewart knowing this, wished to cause a 
pleasure to his new friend, as a propitiatory present. He took to Rome the little 
masterpiece of Meissonier which is in this collection, "The End of a Game of Cards," 
and Fortuny, to his surprise, found one morning the great master's panel placed on 
his own easel and lighting up his studio. Deeply touched, the artist wrote a few 
words of dedication under the water color, "A Street in Tangiers," and presented 
it to Mr. Stewart. 

Height, 14X inches ; length, 19^^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1869. 


(Giuseppe de) 


No. i07 

Route from Brindisi to Barletta 

The picture is one of a long road leading over a bridge, along which some 
weary-looking pedestrians, with a team and yellow-bodied wagon, are slowly 
moving. The fine dust seems a foot deep in the highway, the bushes and grass are 
covered with it, the sunlight is blazing, and the heat, like the breath of a blast- 
furnace, is rising up in wavy lines from the earth. The idea of sultriness is over- 
powering. We almost feel it, as we do in reading the opening chapter of " Little 
Dorrit," with its description of Marseilles burning in the sun. To convey this impres- 
sion, this feeling, seem.s to have been the one object of the artist, and he has 
succeeded in doing it. It is faint praise to say that the picture is well painted, for it 
is more than that. The color-scheme is light, not fiery ; the composition and per- 
spective are excellent, and the textures, from the powdered dust and the wilted 
herbage to the iron tires of the wagon-wheels and the clothes of the travelers, are 
painted with a directness and a certainty not always visible in De Nittis's pictures 
of the Champs Elysees.— yo/?« C. f^an Dyke, The Art Review. 

Height, 11^ inches; length, 2\yi inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1872. 



No. JOS 
Plaza and Street, Toledo 

Prominently in tiie middle background, to the right of the composition, is 
a great white stuccoed building, with an elaborate wooden door studded with iron 
ornaments and topped with a carved coping, over which are two griffms. Bird- 
cages hang on the wall, and a window protected by an iron grille is filled with 
flower-pots containing trailing vines. A child in a yellow dress stands in the shadow, 
and two donkeys browse lazily, a little dog lying near them. The foreground is 
most delicately suggested, while to the extreme right a street recedes in the distance. 
The sky is a heavy blue, and the atmosphere is hot and simmering. 

Signed at the right. 

Height, 8i/( inches ; length, 131^ inches 


No. 109 

Avenue Josephine Market, Paris 

A glimpse of one of the Paris out-of-door markets. Across the middle of 
the panel is a line of green-colored booths or sheds, against which are banked carts, 
and groups of market people and buyers are trading. In the background is a vista 
of Paris, and in the foreground are great numbers of jugs and pots, evidently the 
wares of a pottery merchant. Though there is apparently an enormous amount 
of detail in the picture, it is more by reason of the astonishing cleverness of sug- 
gestion than in any labored work. This painting was first shown at the Universal 
Exposition of 1878. 

Height, 6yi inches; length, 11^ inches. 

Signed at the right. 


(Jean Louis Ernest) 


No. no 
The End of a Game of Cards 

A tragedy admirably told on the few inches of a small panel by one of the 
masters of this century. Two cavaliers have had some quarrel about a doubtful 
throw; they have drawn their swords and pursued each other across the room, 
upsetting and breaking the furniture. One is now stretched on the ground near the 
reddened blade which defended him; the other, struck to death, too, is dying at the 
back of the room, trying to stop with weakened hand the flow of blood from his 
pierced breast. Meanwhile the table on which they cast the dice or cut the cards, 
upset during the fight, burns smouldering in the fireplace. The fatal passion has 
annihilated all, both the actors in the drama and the scene of the struggle. The 
conception is that of a thinker; the picture, painted with wonderful understanding 
of chiaroscuro, is executed with that precision without affectation, that firmness 
without dryness, that breadth of touch which make the little compositions of the 
master so great. 

Height, 8^ inches ; width, 7^ inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1865. 



No. tU 

Meissonier's Portrait 

A clever sketch of the great painter of "La Rixe." He stands in one corner of 
his own studio, at Poissy, dressed in top-boots, tight white breeches, and a brown 
velvet coat. His head is in profile, and in his left hand he holds an enormous cavalry 
sabre. The legs in particular are carefully painted, the rest being nevertheless highly 
suggestive. Meissonier, it seems, had called on Fortuny one day while the latter was 
painting his "Spanish Marriage," and had criticised one of the soldiers in that 
canvas, asserting that, for a good cavalry officer, his legs were not in proportion to 
his body, and to support his assertion and persuade the young man, who was more 
astonished than convinced, he drew his attention to his own legs, which were in 
perfect proportion, and said, " I am the only man who has the proper legs for the 
character you need, and if you will come out to Poissy I will serve as your model." 
Fortuny accepted, went to Poissy, and made a sketch of the great master, who was 
much astonished at the rapidity of execution. Completed later, this study became 
the "Portrait of Meissonier," the artist reproducing the famous painter's studio as a 
background, including an easel on which is the sketch for a composition called 
" Le Guide." 

Height, 1 1 inches ; width, tyi inches. 

Seal at the right. 


(Jean Louis Ernest) 

No. JJ2 

The Stirrup Cup 

A subject of which the artist was fond and which he has treated several times. 
It is always the gentleman on horseback quenching his thirst before he gallops off. 
Here Meissonier triumphs through the truth of the attitudes, the simplicity, and the 
naturalness of the motions, the happy rendering of the expression of the faces ; here 
is shown with rare intensity the great knowledge of the master with regard to 
everything that concerned the horse. Meissonier loved the horse passionately ; he 
modeled some in wax, which are little masterpieces that Barye would have been glad 
to sign. He knew not only the structure and the appearance of the noble animal, but 
he had caught its nature, guessed its caprices and revolts. His horses, wherever you 
find them in his works, have not only their breed, but their character, well marked, 
in this picture the horse, a portrait of an animal that he knew and loved, is a marvel 
of life and of perfect modeling. 

Height, 6^ inches ; width, 4^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1864. 


No. 113 

Rienzi's House in Rome 

A view of the ancient building, the supporting pillars of which are half walled 
up. To the left, in sunlight and shadow, a street is seen, and a number of beggars 
are grouped about on a grassy foreground to the left. There is a deep blue sky, 
with brilliant white clouds. 

Height, 6 inches ; length, 1 1 inches. 

Signed at the left. 



1 838- 1 874 

No. Ui 
The Choice of a Model 

In an elaborately decorated and sumptuously furnished apartment of the 
Palazzo Colonna, in Rome, a number of members of the Academy of Saint Luke, at 
the most luxurious period of last century, are assembled to criticize a nude female 
model who is posing before them in an attitude of studied grace. The ultra-fashion- 
able costumes of the men and their pompous and artificial manners, no less than the 
wonderful richness and elegance of their surroundings, indicate to what an extent the 
study of art was at this period indulged in as a fashionable accomplishment. The 
subject has given Fortuny the best possible opportunity for the exercise of his unique 
skill in the treatment of rich draperies, fine metal work, choice marbles, and all the 
glitter and splendor of precious objects of art with which the princely apartment is 
filled to overflowing. Nor has the artist been too much preoccupied with the imita- 
tion of textiles and with the difficult problems of intricate design and arrangement, 
for he has treated with characteristic skill the delicate contrasts of tone and color as 
well as the differences of human type and expression, which alone would distinguish 
the picture as a rare artistic accomplishment. With all the extraordinary elaboration 
of detail and amazing wealth of color the general harmony of the picture is maintained 
without a false note, and it will always rank as the highest expression of Fortuny's 
great inventive power, his rare taste, and his consummate facility of execution. 

Height, 21 inches ; length, 32 inches. 

Signed at the right. Dated 1874. 



No. ns 
Highway of Combs-la- Ville 

Along a white, flat road, with the distant view of a small village of white walls 
and red roofs, a few wagons are seen going and coming, while on a side path people 
are slowly walking along under a row of long, slender trees. To the right is a gray 
stucco wall, showing the red brick at the entrance gates, where several women stand 
talking. To the left is a stretch of slightly undulating country, and above is a sky 
filled with brilliant cloud-forms. Nowhere has the artist evolved more dexterity or 
more feeling for the realization of the sparkle of a burning summer day in France. 
The strong light of the sun and the great intensity of the heat are masterly ren- 
dered, and the tenderness and brilliancy of the greens are truthfully conveyed. It 
required all the skill of the painter's hand, all the science that his eye possessed, to 
dare to undertake such a work. It has taken all his talent to make it successful. 
The subject was one of those which in art they call dangerous ; almost in play he 
has overcome immense difficulties. 

Height, 27 inches ; length, 39^ inches. 

Signed at the left. Dated 1873. 



1 838 -1 874 

No. U6 

Dead Girl 

When Fortuny was at Granada, a daughter of one of the attendants in the 
Alhambra died. The father came to the artist and begged him to make a painting of 
his daughter, that he might have some likeness of her. So Fortuny painted her lying 
dead in her coffin — painted her as only such a subject could be painted, broadly, 
boldly, swiftly — and in every brush-stroke of it there is that feeling of power that we 
experience in viewing the drawings of Michel Angelo. In the most delicate as in 
the broadest sweep of the brush there is the sense of strength. The spirit of death — 
I had almost said death itself — is caught and transfixed upon canvas by a master 
hand that would rather have left it undone, but, having it to do, did it swiftly and 
surely. One must be more than simply "clever" to do such work. One must look 
deep into the essence of things — and that is genius.— John C. Van Dyke, The Art 

Signed at the left. 

Height, 22 J^ inches; length, 27^^ inches. 



No. m 
Cow Among the Cabbages 

In a cabbage patch, against a well-composed sky, stands a white cow, marked 
with red on the face and neck. To the right are some willow trees, and vaguely 
seen in the distance is a stretch of flat country, with hills along the horizon. It is 
one of the sober, thoughtful studies of cows that none knew how to execute so well 
as this master. The characteristics of the beast, the drawing and anatomy, the 
relations of light and shade, and the proper appreciation of form and movement 
make this work a masterpiece. 

Height, 36 inches ; width, 29 inches. 
Signed at the left. 



No. ns 
Village Politicians 

A most important canvas by this great German master. A group of four 
old peasants sit attentively listening to a younger man, who is reading from a 
newspaper. Each particular face and figure is a study by itself, Holbeinesque in 
its marvelous search for character and extraordinary finish. So masterly is the 
treatment, that none of the types of character illustrated are unduly assertive, and all 
contribute to make a splendid harmony. The artist has accentuated the difficulties 
of his task by introducing no less than four pairs of hands, yet these he has 
drawn and painted no less freely and skillfully than the faces, the picture, in its 
wonderful fidelity and ability, being reminiscent of the Dutch masters of the seven- 
teenth century. It is the master-work of Leibl, and as such created a sensation 
in Paris at the Universal Exposition of 1878. 

Height, 31 inches ; length, ^g inches. 

I, *?*2-»*i 

^ ^^C^ 





No. U9 

The Antiquary 

In a room littered with biblios, bric-^-brac, and articles of virtu an enthusiastic 
amateur sits with a portfolio on his lap, admiring a rare engraving. In front of him, 
on a carved chair, is a folio of prints. Behind the antiquary, a friend leans over his 
chair and glances at the engraving which is being admired by the amateur. On a 
rich rug that nearly covers the floor is an elaborately carved treasure chest, on which 
are placed specimens of Venetian glass and other objects; a handsome large red vase 
stands on the mantle, and a cockatoo is perched on a bar in the foreground, while at 
the extreme right a man carrying a portfolio stops in front of an elaborately carved 
table. A suit of Japanese armor stands near the left center, and the walls of the room 
are hung with rich tapestries. In a gorgeous Florentine frame, hanging above a 
carved white marble fireplace, is a painting of a knight in armor, a likeness of Mr. 
Stewart, which was introduced under the following circumstances. Mr. Stewart had 
been in possession of this work for some time when Fortuny made a trip to Paris, 
and while there called on his patron. In chatting with him, Mrs. Stewart expressed 
her regret at not having a good portrait of her husband. Fortuny did not answer, 
but a little later he went up to "The Antiquary," and, with a certain appearance of 
embarrassment, declared that the background needed retouching. An artist's fancy, 
they thought. Mr. Stewart was one of those men who refused nothing, and Fortuny 
was one of those to whom everything was granted, and on his departure he carried 
away the picture. After a few days, when it was returned to the owner, it had in 
fact been subjected to a change. The artist had introduced in the background a 
capital portrait of his friend, which, in its old frame, thoroughly harmonized with the 
original composition of the picture. 

Height, 19 inches ; length, 26 inches. 
Signed at the right. 


(Raymondo de) 
No. 120 

Departure from the Masked Ball 

This well-known canvas represents the courtyard of a Parisian mansion at 
the conclusion of a masked ball. It is early dawn, and the gas-lamps at the gates 
seem feeble in the greater light of the day that is so near. Carriages, in which are 
gay maskers in costume, are being driven away, and other guests are coming down 
the canopy-covered steps of the mansion. A group of footmen and coachmen in 
livery are at the left, discussing the contents of a daily paper. In the middle group 
a man dressed as Punchinello, with a Japanese lady on his arm, is taking a Madame 
de Pompadour to task. Beyond, a Pierrot, somewhat the worse for his dissipation, 
has dropped on the grass, and his companion is assisting him to rise. Outside, 
some street-sweepers, half awake, are cleaning up the road — a dramatic touch. Leaf- 
less trees, beautifully drawn, are in front of the handsome iron railings which inclose 
the courtyard, and the distant houses are pale and gray in the early morning light. 
No detail has been omitted, everything is in harmony, and the composition is most 
interestingly arranged. This picture attracted great attention when it was shown 
at the Salon, 1878, and marks the highest point in the genre work of this dis- 
tinguished painter's career. 

Height, 21)4 inches ; length, 46 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


No. 121 

Arab Butcher 

A ray of glaring sunlight falling on a white wall, a slaughtered ox stretched 
upon the ground in a pool of blood, a figure or two with just enough color in the 
costumes to make contrast — and that is all. Repulsive as the subject undoubtedly is, 
one can but wonder at the genius of the man which could transform such a scene into 
a thing of beauty. And it is actually beautiful from an artist's point of view. The 
heated air, the glaring sunlight, and, above all, the key of color formed by the bright 
red blood, are startling in their effectiveness and are really pleasing to the eye. Nor is 
the sketch idealized in the popular meaning of that badly abused word. It is natural 
enough, yet it is not simply a piece of brutal strength, like Rembrandt's "Dressed 
Beef" in the Louvre. ^/o/?n C. yan Dyke, The Art Review. 

\ have in view several other things, one especially ("The Butcher") that I 

will endeavor to sketch before my departure, but it will not be for sale, for nobody 

would buy it, only I will take the luxury of painting it for myself ; it is in this that 

true painting consists. — Extract from Fortuny's letter to Baron Davillier, October g. 


Height, 29 inches ; length, 52 inches. 
Seal at the left. 


No. 122 

Cows in the Valley, Toucques 

A complete and fine example of the well-known cattle-painter, who has 
here composed an agreeable arrangement of animals and a summer landscape. A 
white cow in profile is in the foreground, half in sunlight ; behind her is a black one, 
while to the left a red cow is lying down near a pool of water. Other cattle are 
vaguely seen in the distance, also a plain and a hillside in tender purples. A 
white building is nearly obscured by some trees, and there is a sense of the rich, 
heavy summer greens, cool shadows, and the quiet of pasture lands. 

Height, 24 inches ; length, 40 inches. 

Signed at the left. 


(Julius L.) 
No. 123 


The scene represents a field of grain situated in a hollow surrounded by 
verdure-clad hills, soft and harmonious in their tender purples and green, under a 
sparkling sky of cerulean blue, with fluffy white clouds. To the right is a tree 
almost leafless, and near it are two fashionably dressed women, one in white, 
the other in gray. To the left center are a man and woman, with red parasol, 
while near by is a young lad. The red tones of poppies, scattered here and there 
among the grain, give note of color, while the greens both in the foreground and 
middle distance are pure, brilliant, and admirably arranged. A cloud shadow fall- 
ing on the field serves to make pleasing contrasts of light and shade, and the 
painting, though broad and vigorous, is not without much detail. Above all, the 
work has a crisp, fresh, breezy feeling, suggesting satisfactorily the time — early 
summer — and the place — France. 

Height, 33 >^ inches ; length, 59 inches. 
Signed to the right. Dated 1880. 


No. J24 

Environs de Tanger 

An ebauche, or the laying-in of a picture. An old, uprooted tree is to the left, 
and to the right are suggestions of figures about a hut. In the distance, to one 
side, is a stream of water, and in the middle the ruins of a square, low building. 
The work is painted in free, vigorous strokes, each one of which is full of sig- 
nificance, and demonstrates the artist's manner of approaching an important com- 
position, and as such is most interesting. 

Height, 26% inches ; length, 60 inches. 
Seal at the left. 


No. 125 

Monkey and Fruit 

This large and highly characteristic example of the great modern master of 
still-life painting represents a table covered with various articles in great confusion, 
the result of the caprice and mischievousness of a monkey, who is looking from the 
dim background at the havoc he has wrought. With one paw he is toppling over 
a copper vase of flowers, and with the other a glass dish, the fruit from which is 
strewn on a large plate. A big red book, a pipe, and some sheets of music are 
scattered about. 

Height, 59 inches ; length, 45 inches. 


No. i26 

The Huntress 

Portrait of a woman in deep-red doublet, white ruff about the neck, and 
wearing a large hat with feathers, and carrying on her shoulder an old arquebus. 
The face has a piquant expression, and is painted with great freedom and dash. 

Height, 36 inches ; width, iSyi inches. 

Signed at the right. 


No. 127 

The Alberca Court, Alhambra 

An incomplete but marvelously composed interior of the famous court, with 
the basin of the fountain in the foreground, the limpid water reflecting the exquisite 
Moorish architecture and the long graceful columns. An entrance opens into 
another court, and farther on is seen, vaguely, a garden. To the right are some 
plants with great leaves and an orange tree. An elaborate Oriental rug hangs 
from the roof, and a curtain protects the left of the court from the heat of the 
sun. The possibilities of the picture seem infinite, and in its unfinished state 
it gives an interesting idea of the artist's manner of procedure. 

Height, 48 inches ; length, 67 inches. 

Seal at the right. 


(Raymundo de) 
No. 128 


A full-length figure of a pretty girl in fancy dress, as Pierrette, leaning against 
a wall and holding a black mask in one hand. A pink cloak jauntily thrown over 
her shoulders, relieved by a blue lining and ermine border ; a pink sash and stock- 
ings, a white petticoat and slippers, make a costume as tasteful in arrangement as it 
is piquant in effect. The painting is executed with a freedom and spirit quite in 
harmony with the subject, and the picture has enjoyed great popularity even in the 
reproduction by which it is best known. 

Height, 78^^ inches ; width, J7 inches. 

Signed at the upper right. 





No. 129 

"The Communist," by d'Epinay. Golden-brown patina. 

Height, 1 6 inches. 

Signed and inscribed. 

No. t30 

By Sho-kwa-ken. Straight ovoid shape. Wickerwork design, in relief casting, 
and chased. Various insects modeled in relief. Side handles of bamboo pattern. 

Height, 13 inches. 

Signed on the foot. 

No. I3J 

" Horse and Cat," by Fremiet. Rich brown patina. 

Height, 6 inches ; length, 8 inches. 


No. J 32 

"The Little Fisherman," by Gemito, a Neapolitan sculptor, who, when 
young, visited Paris at Meissonier's invitation. The great painter thought so highly 
of him that he entertained him at his house and kept him as a guest as long as 
he could. 

Height, 10 inches ; diameter, lo inches. 
Signed proof, cire perdue. 

No. 133 

"Croquet," by d'fipinay. Brown patina. 

Height, 10^ inches. 


No. 134 

"The Gladiators," by Gerome. Antique green patina. 

Height, 17 inches. 

No. J35 

Wickerwork design, cast and chiseled. Skillfully wrought, lifelike rats and 
mice in bold relief. Fine patina. 

Height, II inches; diameter, 13 inches. 

No. 136 

"Meissonier," by d'fipinay. Brown patina with green markings. 

Height, 1 1 inches. 


No. 137 

"Woman of the First Empire," by Gemito. Green patina. 

Height, 21 inches. 

Signed proof, cire perdue. 

No. 138 

"Due d'Orleans," by Fremiet. Brown patina. 

Height, 19 inches; width, 15 inches. 


No. 139 

"The Fisher Boy," by Gemito. With bronze and gilt pedestal. 

Height, 20 inches ; diameter, 1 1 inches. 

Signed proof, cire perdue. 

No. 140 

"Gaston de Foix," by Barye. Fine green patina. 

Height, 14 inches ; length, 13 inches. 

Signed proof from Barye's studio. 

No. 141 

By Barye. Byzantine design, oval-shape green patina, black marble top. 

Height, 7 inches ; length, 1 8 inches. 
From Barye's studio. 

No. J42 

"St. George and the Dragon," by Fremiet. Gilt finish, with white marble 

Height, 22 inches ; width, 15 inches. 


No. 143 

"Panther Seizing a Stag," by Barye. Fine green patina. 

_. , , , „ Height, 1; inches ; length, 22 inches. 

Signed proof from Barye's studio. 

No. 144 

"Tiger Seizing a Deer," by Barye. Fine green patina. 

Height, 13 inches ; length, 23 inches. 

Signed proof from Barye's studio. 

No. 145 

"Paul Baudry," by Dubais. 

No. 146 

"J. L. Gerome," by Carpeaux. 
Signed. Dated 1873. 

Life size. 

Life size. 

No. 147 

Green marble case, surmounted by group of "Fawn and Cub Bears," sculp- 
tured in white marble by Fremiet. 

Height, 20 inches ; length, 24 inches. 


No. 148 

By Cain. Bamboo tripod design, with snail feet ; mice and bird-nest orna- 
mentation in relief. 

Height, 20 inches. 

No. J49 

Japanese. Tall ovoid shape, with bold, flaring necks ; cast and chiseled relief 
ornamentation of dragons, birds, and clouds ; gold inlays, elephant-head handles. 

Height, including stands, 37 inches ; diameter, 15 inches. 

No. 150 

Old Chinese. Grand bottle-shape. Designs of lotus plants in bloom, and 
birds in green, turquoise, and white enamel on a ground of Indian red. Fitted as 

Height, 2} inches; diameter, 17 inches. 

No. t5I 

inlaid with various woods ; elaborately wrought brass mountings ; door orna- 
mented with finely decorated Sevres porcelain medallions : white marble top. 

Height, 45 inches ; length, 55 inches. 

No. J 52 

Inlaid with ivory and various woods ; elaborately carved supports. 

Height, 32 inches ; length, 60 inches ; width, 48 inches. 

No. 153 

To match the above-described table. 

No. J 54 

To match the foregoing. 

No. 155 

Carved and beautifully lacquered by Japanese. Four folds. 

Height, 75 inches ; length, 108 inches. 





List of Artists Represented and Their Works 






Roman Youth Reading Horace 








The Wave and the Pearl 


Fortune and the Child 



Military Sketches 



House at Naples 



River Seine at Mont-Valerian 




The Rest at the Studio 21 

Clichy Square, Paris 58 

The Beach at Etretat 82 
Pond in the Forest of Fontainebleau 90 

River Seine at Bougival 104 

Highway of Combs-la-Ville 115 

"Neapolitan Peasants at the Farnese 

Palace 6} 

View of Old Paris 19 

Wild Flowers 18 

The Commune 7 

On the Coast 8 

Dead Calm 105 






Summer Landscape 


Winter Landscape 


COROT, J. B. C. 

Ville d'Avray 





Auvers on the Oise 



Death and the Woodman 


DUEZ, E. A. 

The Pont Neuf, Paris 






Parisian Flower-Girl 



Corpus Christi 


Study of Flowers 


The Arquebusier 


Arab Fantasia 


Italian Peasant Girl 


Arab's Head 


Cafe of the Swallows 


One of the " King's Moors" 


The Old Peasant 


Court of Justice, Alhambra 


Courtyard, Alhambra 


Arab at Prayer 


Gipsy Caves, Granada 


Breakfast in the Old Convent Yard 


Rosa Contadina 


Arab Reclining on a Divan 


The Masquerade 


A Street in Tangiers 


Meissonier's Portrait 


The Choice of a Model 


Dead Girl 


The Antiquary 


Arab Butcher 






Environs de Tanger 


The Alberca Court, Alhambra 



Small Talk 



Door of a Mosque, with Heads of 

Decapitated Rebels 



The War in the East 



Autumn. Castle of San Angelo 



Monte Pincio 


Lady in Yellow 


San Giovanni Laterano 



Head of a Girl 



An Arabian Horseman 



The Landlord 



Off for the Hunt 



Village Politicians 



Women at Raphael's Tomb 



Woman and Parrot 


Woman and Guitar 


Departure from the Masked Ball 





Italian Armor, Sixteenth Century 




The End of a Game of Cards 


The Stirrup Cup 



The Stirrup Cup 



A Seaside idyl 


The Turkey Girl 




MOORE, H. HUMPHREY Banks of a River 






Woman Seated 



Farm Scene 


NITTIS, G. de 

Lowlands Near Naples 


Route from Brindisi to Barletta 



English Landscape 



A Market in Hungary 


Hungarian Peasant Wagon 






Rural Life, England 



Caf6 Chantant 


Cafe Ambulant 



Venetian Canal with View of Vero- 

nese's Tomb 


Fisherman, Seville 


Boats at Poissy 


A Spanish Garden 


Pond at Meaux 


The Tarpeian Rock, Rome 


The Woodcutter 




Plaza and Street, Toledo 


Avenue Josephine Market, Paris 


Rienzi's House in Rome 



The Huntress 




View of Capri 




The Woodcutter, Forest of Fon- 

tainebleau 99 

The Kitchen in the Castle 65 

Gipsy Fortune Teller 70 





A Plowing Match 





Woman and Elephant 


Remembrance and Regrets 






Valley of the Toucques 


Chickens Feeding 


The Lane 


Cow Among the Cabbages 



An Old Woman's Head 



A Normandy Cow 


Cows in the Valley, Toucques 



The Bridle Path, Bois de Boulogne 



Crystal Bowl and Fruit 


Monkey and Fruit 


WEBER, 0. 



Landscape and Cows 



Fortuny's Model 


The Infanta 


The Snowball 













William H* Stewart, 


On Thursday and Friday Evenings, February 3d and 4TH 







From January 24TH until date of sale, inclusive 






[all rights reserved] 



No. i of CAtalogfue 
Military Sketches 

(Pen and Ink; 
HeiKbt, g Inches: lenfcth. ii Inchet 


(ilnl bos ns'T) 
esrioni ti .ril^nal leadoui o .JriaisH 

aowAJjaa htyjo^i^ih eiuoj mazoi 


No. 2 of Catalogue 

The War in the East 

(Black and White) 
HriRht, Q Inches : lenf;th. ii inches 



:.j>8oUt£D lo S .oVl 

jzbII jriJ ni ibW ariT 

asil-n! -- '•■ —• '■■'■'■ '■'■•■■>H 

No. 3 of Catalog:uc 


(Pen and Ink) 
Heiffht, 13X inche» ; width, 8)f inches 


^•»'- m 


3o^ol£j£D lo £ .oVI 


wrioni ifS .riJbiw ; zsriDni >(c' ,"l8'«H 







c/ ^; 

No. 4 of Catalog^u* 

A Plowing M;itch 

(Bl:ick and Whltr) 
Height. n<i InchCT : Irntrth. ji Inche 



No. 5 of Catalogue 

Corpus Christi 

CMonochrome Study) 
Heichi, n Inchn ; length. i|H Inchn 





ao^oIfiJ^D io S mVI 

(ybulS 9inoiil3unol/!) 




No. 6 of Cataloffue 

Autumn. Castle of San Angelo 

(■Water Color) 
Heiirht. t^i Inchn ; Icnirth, 9 InchM 



3U^ol£}£D lo h .oV[ 

(lolcD isIeW) 




No. 7 of dtalogue 

The Commune 

fWatcr Color) 
HeiKbt, qii inchn : wlrlth. e Incbei 



su^oIbJ^D \o T .oVl 


anumrrioD sriT 

CiotoD isjeW) 
33i<3ni 8 ,(1jhi« i"!il mi >^p .Jri^isH 





No. 8 of Catalogfu« 

On the Coast 

CWater Color) 
Heigrht, 13}^ Incbe* ; width. aoK Inchct 




w^oifiJfiD io 8 ,oVI 

jZBoD sfll nO 

(loloD vjjfiW) 

2YAJ3 WA3[ .JUA4 



No. 9 of Catalogue 


The Stirrup Cup 

CWalcr Color) 
Hfipht Ri' inilirs- l,-n.'tl. >. In.l,.-. 



qu3 quniJ2 ariT 

(lOlo'J liJB^'^ 

J3XM3M kIHAMCl>i3 Ol^faClH^IH 3J0CIA 

No. 10 of Catalo?u« 

Study of Flowers 

(Waicr ( oW) 
Height. ,o ing(,c* . w|j„, j,,^ ,„^,,^ 


^^oUltD \o OJ .oVl 

ziawolT 'to vbuJ2 

C f 

No. J J of Catalogfue 

Monte Pincio 

(Water Color) 
Height, 7Ji inches ■. length, ii% inches 




su^oIbJeD io H .oVl 

obnil 9}noM 

(lolo'J -raJsW^ 

HTUa.llHH (lWAi^Ul>i3T 

No. 12 of Catalogut 

Venetian Canal with View ol Veronese's Tomb 

lOil HuiniinKi 
Heiifht, Cii Inchn : length. ii(i Inchn 



drrioT ;>'i>?,^noit3V 1o woiV riJi// li-ni;3 riniJ^noV 
031^ '/1T5IAM 

Vri r 


No. 13 of Gitalog:ue 

Roman Youth Reading Horace 

(Uil PaintinK) 
HeiKlil, 6yi inchu ; IcnKth, 9X inclu-<i 


sirgoLfitfD \o El .oVl 

3DEioH gfiibut)>I rlJuoY nernoil 

(anilniel liO) 




^*>.' •'. '• 

No. 14 of Catalog'uc 
Cafe Chantant 

(Oil HaintinK) 
Heighl. (,'(. imlics • l.n,.ili . ■' . inches 





au-soUJiD lo *J .oVI 

inctnr.rlD 'J'^J;3 

No. 15 of Catalogue 

River Seine at Mont-Valerian 

(Oil PainiinK) 
Height, 8^ Inches ; width, 6% inche» 





iu^oUJ^D to e» .oT^ 

nLiTjU: v-KioM Ji; om-iC vruH 


No. J 6 of Catalogu* 

The Arquebusier 

(Oil Paintini:) 
Height, 9)^ inches ; width, 6*^ Inche 


■M^ohl&D io dl .oVI 

loizudaupiA ariT 

(sniJnitS liO) ' 
asri'jni i^fl .ilibiv/ : ;-3rioni ^t .irtqisH 




dri ^ 



No. 17 of Catalogue 

Banks of a River 

fOil Painting) 
Helifhi. loK Inches ; width. 6K inch« 



suSoIiliD lo Tt .oVl 

(jjnijnifil liO) 

- -i.-jni f';d .tlibiyi ; iailDni i'' iuliphH. 

H5100M Y35IHqMUH .H 

No. (8 of Catalofw 

Wild Flowers 

rWatcr Color) 
HelRht, ,K inchCT ; widih. ,5^ InchM 

l£on bonvin 

w^okJfiD \o 81 .oV[ 

2i9Won bliW 

(toIoO ntBVn 
aarioni y^ .dlbiw ; Mriaoi Me .^rtaisH 

WlVl/fOa M03J 




No. 19 of Catalogxic 

View of Old P;iris 

(Water Color; 
Heieht. ^>4 ini h.s IrnKth, 8li Inclien 


?Av:H blO 1o w3iV 
/(vTD.^i'/Ofl ;>-l>J5lAn (IMAH3151 


.r ^ati^- 



No. 20 of Catalog:ue 

Fisherman, Seville 

(Water Color) 
Heighl, n'A inclicH ; lenf(th, 21 indict. 


-'^S'J .iiiifesSSSSB**^ 

'«■ II 

^^ol&isD \o 0£ .oVI 

ODlil KltJlAM 




No. 2 J of Catalogue 

The Rest at the Studio 

(Water Color) 
Heiglit, 9X intbts ; lenKtb, laji Inches 


•V '. 



3U^o!£j£D lo l£ .oVI 

(toIc'J 13JeVO 



No. 22 of Catalog^ue 


CWairr Color) 
Hciiflit, loX inches, length. aoK inthes 



su^okJfiD io £S .oVl 

M3ad// OTTO 



No. 23 of Catalog'ue 

Farm Scene 

(Oil Painting) 
Height, ijjf inchen; length, x'A inclii-n 



sugoklfiD io eZ .oVI 

yj6x?.3M 1^0 V Asao 


No. 24 of Catalogu* 

Fortuny's Modd 

(Oil Painting) 
IlfiL.'lu. 1.. in. hrs Irniflli, i^ inihrs 



aos'">niJ.' ^■ 

<•.;( ).;/.iv 


No. 25 of Catalog;ue 

English Landscape 

coil I'ainiinK) 
Height, 14 inches : Icncili, r8 inches 


'iU^olnlt.D \o ££ .oVI 

'jqirj2bru;J riailgnS 

(yniinir.H liO> 



No. 26 of Catalog^tie 

Woman and Parrot 

(Oil I'aintinK) ' 
lliiijhl, 1., inclics ; width, 15 intliis 


su^oUj^D lo dS .oVl 

)oni;T bni; riumoW 

• 1 ynimifcT liOj 

UXAyltlAM .lU UU /!UiV.Y/.>i 


^ ^J^ 


No. 27 of Catalogue 

Arab Fantasia 

(Oil PaintlniO 
Hei(fht, 30 inches ; lenirth. 16 inches 


su^olfitfiD lo TS .oVl 

(aniJniKT liO) 

Y/fUT510H O'AM^AM 


No. 28 of Catalogfue 


(Oil Painting) 
Heittlil, 21 K inthcs ; widili, t8 inthp 



•:, >*'. f.'*" 

ny^s^i^-^mwJinun^tLi'vri rricu^rM^ 


airgoUJfiP lo 8S .oVI 

ynilnitS liO) 



No. 29 of Catalogue 
Women at Raphaels Tomb 

( \V;it<;r Color J 
llcijjlit, 2o'/ inches; width, l^^^ Inches 



^tj^ohltD io 9£ .oVl 

dfrioT ;^loi;riqf;^ U: riornoW 

dole') lyJuV/) 

SADDAM ?]>i/-/.dJ 



No. 30 of Catalo^u« 

Boats at f^oissy 

(Water Color) 
Hci((ht, qii inchn ; lenKth, 13K inches 


r I 

su^oUuD }o 0£ .oVr 

(lOlO-) 13JBV/) 

ODI>i mT>lAM 


No. 3J of Catalog'ue 

Italian Peasant Girl 

(Water Col6r) 
Helffht, aoK inches; width, ui4 Inch* 


^ J»«f 


3o:8ol£*^'-^ ^*' '^ '°^ 

YHUT^n'-j O'/fAlJlAM 


No. 32 of Catalogfue 


fWater Color) 
Hc-i({ht, ti)<)( iri'lifs; width, i )'< inche 



E-'- ' •:■(;- 

sw^oUJ^ lo S£ .oVl 

80351A 00AITl4A^ 


No. 33 of Catalogue 

Ville d'Avray 

(Oil Painting) 
Height, 11^ incbes; lenKth, i6}{ inclies 


iugoUJil) to ti .oVi 

yuivA'b alliV 

(aniinieH liO) 


No. 34 of Catalog^ue 

Valley of the Toucques 

("Oil I'alntlni;) 
Height, t2% inches; lenirth, 171. inches 


su^oktiD \o i-t .oVl 

zoupDuoT 9fiJ to v;.lli;V 

(unilfiit'I liO) 




No. 35 of Catalogfue 

Auvers on the Oise 

(Oil Paintlnif) • 
HelKbt, f^'/i inches; length, 26*^ inchn 


■iiiA^:.^i^r_ r^'^en^tt y 

9?iO arlJ no ziavuA 

• O^nilniEl (iO) 

Y/.uiaU/.(l f'.KJJH/.;!-! ^JJ51AH3 

No. 36 of Catalog^oc 

Lowlands Near Naples 

ruil PainiinK) 
lIciKlil. i)K inches: Irnirtli. n in' lirs 



■jo^ol/itcD lo 6t .oVJl 

^ITTIW Hd ?1M<-IH?.IJI0 


No. 37 of Catalogue 

Woman and Guitar 

(Oil PaintioKJ 
Height, i8}^ inched; width. 14K inches 


iA*.il.-ji.R-:.i- Ki.'tiKr .». - :'■ . ,. 

au^goli^sD io T£ .oH 

iGttuu bnK ni;rnoW 

(anilnisH UO) 



No. 38 of Catalogue 
An Old Woman's Head 

(Oil PaintinK; 
Heiifhi, 2o>/i inche«: width. 15 inches 


bc^H z'niirnoW blO nA 


No. 39 of Cataiog^ue 
Door of a Mosque, with Heads of Decapitated Rebels 

(Oil PaintiiiK; 
HeiKht, ii inchrs; width, i;^ incbct 


2l9cl35i bsUiJiquosG lo zbiisf-l riJiv/ ,3up2oM k to looG 

(Snijnisi (iO) 
asriani ^^i ,dJbiw jsaibiii is .jrisisH 

3m6>I30 KOdJ KA31 


No. 40 of Catalog:ue 

Arab's Head 

(Oil I'aintine) 
Hciehl. 2? inihrs- widili. iK'/. inchM 


3u;got£t&D lo 0^ .oVl 

bKsH 2'dKiA 

(anilnifiS IiO) 


No. 41 of Catalogue 

The Infiinta 

(Oil l>ainiine) 
HeiKht, i;<4 inches ; width, 15K inches 



sv^ohirD io li- .oV[ 

uJniilnl -^riT 

Cgnbnisl iiO) 

^10:)AMAS 0<IMAU(1H 



No. 42 of Gttalogue 

An Arabian Horseman 

(Water Color) 
HeiKht, 16 inches; lenKih. t8K inchc* 



ou-^ohleD Jo ^^ .oVl 

ncrTi92ioH nuiduiA nA 

(loloj isJr.W) 


No. 43 of Catalogfuc 

A Spanish Garden 

fWaier Color) 
HelKhi, 13 inchcn; length, iq Inchai 



w^oIfiJ^) io ti' .oVl 

nabiiiO rl<;inuq2 A 

CmloD r;Jr.7/i 




No. 44 of Catalogfue 

Cafe of the Swallows 

f Water Color) 
HeiRlit, n)K inches; width, 155^ inches 


bo^oIfitaD io M .oVl 

■ffffoWwifZ arlJ 'to iitiO 


-^^ *' 


f — ^ ( 




No. 45 of Gitalogfuc 

Head of a Girl 

(Oil Paintini;; 
Height, a J inches; width, i8 inchet 



iii^oi&lsD io 2* .oW 

hiO B lo besH 

(sni)nii;H liO) 
i!Sil-jni 8i .illhiw ;83riDni se .jrfgiaH 


No. 46 of Catalogue 

Chickens Feeding 

(OU PalnlinK; 
Height, i8ii iochet ; length, n Inches 



>L>-8okJi£> lo d^ ,oVi. 

gnibasT 2n3>loifi3 


No. 47 of Catalog-uc 

A Normandy Cow 

(Oil PaintliiKJ 
Height, iiyi inclicD; length, )t iocbes 



au^okJfiO Jo Tl> .oVI 

woD Y^nnrmoK A 

(anijnicl liO) 

3>I.')^AM P1AV 3JIM3 



No. 4S of Catalogue 

A Seaside Idyl 

(Oil Painting) 
Height, asK inche« ; length, 39J4 loche* 



l(bl 3Li2E32 A 
(gnilnic^ liO) 


/.'■ /^ 


No. 49 of Catalogue 


Oil Painting) 
tleiKht, »9 inches ; width, 33% inchet 


^- V 









' ■. » ■ V. 










No. 50 of Catalogue 

Summer Landscape 

(Oil Painting) 
Height, isa incheii : length, j,« Inche* 


ou^ohiiD to OC .oVI 

9qcD2bnfiJ lammuS 

(gnuniEl liO) 

^.!4AMH200.') H>fO(JOdHl HMddUL 

No. 5 J of Catalogue 

Woman and HIephant 

(Oil PalntliiR) 
Helffht, It) Inches; wiilth, nH Inches 


ju^oIfitiD lo J£ .oVl 

t((i;rli|oI3 bnu riutnoW 
?.H3V3T?. CiailHJA 


No. 52 of Gitalog:ue 

One of the " King's Moors 

lOll HaintinK) 
lieiKlii, a.)% inche« ; width, i4 incliM 


^u-golMUD io S£ .oVI 

<iooM z'gfiiX.'.'jriJ lo onO 

(yniJiiiiiH IR)^ " 
i-jiljni "(,: ,(llbiw ; BbriDni Xfpt .jrta'a" 

Yi/IIT^IO'l ()'//l'/lAW 

No. 53 of Catalogue 

Parisian Flower-Girl 

(Uil I^aintlneJ 
HciKht, i6\i inchea; IrnRth, 14^ inche* 



■jo^oUic'^ lo Ip .ov^l. 

,i!l-ll' ; :^):l)ni •, ' ..J .'iflBi-jFI 


No. 54 of Catalogue 

Rural Life, England 

fWater Color) 
HHlMu. ^<". in,l„v: wWlh, a6 Inches 



^oUi^D io ^ -oVI 

,.„t-,nl .,',r .JllsiMI 

^•)rl(iii OS ,rllti'"" 



No. 55 of Catalogfue 
View of Capri 

rWater Colore 
Height, II Inches; width, 15 Inchn 




hquD lo woiV 
aJIH32HT051 ?1(1 .0 823'/0>lAa 

No. 56 of Gitaloguc 

The Old Peasant 

(Water Colore 
Heigbt, aa inches; width, i6 inches 



au-goIiJfiD lo d£ .oVl 

JnuzBal blO bflT 

No. 57 of Catalogue 

Pond at Meaux 

(Water Color) 
Heliflu, II inches ; length, «> inches 




su-goktsD lo TS .oV[ 

xucaM JG bno*1 

(loloO i»JkW) 

OD151 '/f IT MAM 

No. 58 of Catalogue 

Clichy Square, Paris 

(Uil PainlinK) 
Height, 93}; inches: lenRlh, 38 incha 


- I 




jugokt&D \o 82 .oVi 

CjjnrjniBT liO) 


No. 59 of Catalogue 

Winter Landscape 

(Oil PalntinK> 
Height, 31 inches ; length. 34 inche* 


su^ok^iD io 92 .oVi 

'jqii38bni;J laJniW 

^KAMa^oo^ 3>iocio3ht Hqa20[ 

No. 60 of Catalo^ut 
The Turkey Girl 

(Oil PaintInK) 
Height, is'A incbc* ; length, 35^ inche* 


hiO ysjliuT 3riT 

(aniJ(iij:1 liO) 

1TT3H31M OJOAq 032aDHA5iH 

No. 61 of Catalogue 

Court of Justice, Allumbra 

(Oil Painting) 
HeiKlit, 50 inchn ; width, a^y, Inche* 


;5ol£tfiD lo J 6 .oVI 

mrirriGrilA ,3oiJ?u(.1o JiuoD 

^sthni ifrs .rfibiw ; aarioni of. .jrisiaH 

YWUT^lfH ()'/A15IAM 


No. 62 of Catalogue 

Lady in Yellow 

HeiRht. 36Jf inches : width, aijf inche* 
foil Paintinc) 


3u^cJ£j£D io Sd .oVI 

wolbY ni ybcJ 

. canijnicl liOi 


No. 63 of Catalogue 

Neapolitan Peasants at the Farnese Palace 

(Oil PalnUnR) 
Heiifbt, J I'; inchn ; length, y)'A Inchei 


iu^oIfiJfiD lo Eb .oVl 


No. 64 of Catabgue 

A Crystal Bowl and Fruit 

(Oil Painting I 
Height, 35!^ inchn ; length, 363^ incha 




so^oIjsJbD io *b .oVI 

63ri:ini V."'' .rtJ^n'>i ; fij"' i'l^ .IilsisH 


No. 65 of Gitalogfo* 
The Kitchen in the Castle 

on Painting^ 

ll'-H,'lit. jB'<. Inchra; Icnmb, j8 Inchcn 



i-irfonr Sj .ritsnsi ; esriani X'Ss .Jft^isH 

T^nyoa '/TO^J 510TDIV CMAI/nci^^T 

No. 66 of Catalogs 


(Oil Painting) 
Height, 3i)f inchn; Icnitth, 47}< inches 


f wan^ia* >«V4«K>a«*«''^-^':-. d^ .-/■"rtii>4<^-%»-i5:-i-y«:*sk^^ 

augoUtfiD io hh .oVi 


Cgniinic'I liO> 

No. 67 of Catalogue 

The Pont Neuf, Paris 

(Oil Paintinii; 
Height, isK inches ; leni^h, 31 incbe* 



Mi^oIjstiO \o Ti .oT^ 

Kni.'\ ,\uM inoT 3dT 

(.^aijaiii'l liOj . 

XHUCI 3014A T83M>I3 






No. 68 of Catalogue 

A Courtyard, Alhambra 

(Oil Painting) 
Heleht. 4^K Inchen; wldili, 34)^ Incbn 




suSoktsD io 8d xyi 

mdrnjirilA .buivnuoO A 

(sniJoicS liO) 

Y!/rMT510'H Ol<Al51AM 

No. 69 of Citalogxie 

The W.ivL- .iiici ini' i'carl 

I on Painting) 
HeiRht, 33 inches ; lenj^h, 70 inchn 





No. 70 of Catalogue 
Gipsy Fortune Teller 

• Oil Kiiminif) 
HciKht, << inches ; Iniirth, ,« Inchn 


'^SMa^'^:3^%*f m^^'J'i^^-'- ::•■■.■ :^ > ' rV-^-->-..: 




3u?okt£D \o OK .oVl 

(aniJnicT liO) 

TMA^ 23MA[ 


No. 7 J of Catalogue 

The Landlord 

(Pencil Drawing) 
Heiglit, i8 Inches; width, la inchc* 



w^oI&IbD io K .oVl 

biolbnuJ 3fiT 

»djni SI .difaiw .esriini 3i .trigisH 

zuhWA oiwauj 

<■ Anaii. 



No. 72 of Catalog-oe 
The Bridle Path, Bois Je Boulogne 

(Pen and Ink) 
Height, 17 inches ; width. 14M inches 



an^oluoa ob aioa ,ffjii1 albha adT 

(:(nl bnc nsl) 





No. 73 of Catalogue 

Woman Seated 

Heighi, t'H inchn ; width, 8',^ inchn 


SU'goIfiJfiD \o l\ .oVI 

baJiisS ncmoW 

asiljni JS ,riJbiv» ; i^sft^ni if ii .JilgisH 

IJJH>10M 0311^3MOn 






No. 74 of Gitalogfue 

Arab at Prayer 

UriRht, Ji inchm ; widlh. 17 Inrlm 


*t-^- :•!< 




str^oUtsD io t^Y .oVl 


No. 75 of Catalogfuc 
Italian Armor, Sixteenth Century 

Heitrht, q inchn • wMth. 5K Inchc* 





3uSol£:t£D lo 5V .oV[ 

'{lutivj'j) dlnsstxiZ ,'■<■> <■■' nr.niM 
; "bnJ i4; .ttibiw ■ niloni v ,iriai9H 

fiUmyr'^lHM T?.3H^H 2IU0J kTAHt- 



No. 76 of Catalog^ue 

Height, lo Indies ; width, 7 Inche* 



5l3Il/f02?JHM T?,rlW>l3 21U0J KAHl 




No. 77 of Catalogue 

Off for the Hunt 

(Water Color) 
Height, 5>i Inchn ; Icnftth, lo inches 



^o^oIxIfiD io X^ .oVI 

)nuH orlJ io1 TiO 

No. 78 of Catalog:ue 
Small Talk 

(Water Color) 
HeiKht. iiM inchn . width. 8K Inches 



23d3ni H8 .ritbrw ; jsrisni ^n .JdgisH 





No. 79 of Catalogue 

San Giovanni Luicr;ino 

fWaier Colw) 
Hrijjhi, m inrhet; lenctli, nX Inches 






su'jokJfiD }o 9T .oVl 

■', .JrtjsisH 

No. 80 of Catalogue 

Gipsy Caves, Granada 

(Oil PalnUnR) 
Height, 7<A Inches ; width. sH Inche 





•lu^lfiJjO io 08 .oV[ 



No. 81 of Gitalogfue 

House at Naples 

roil PalntinR) 
HelRht. 6V, inchn. width. ,% Incbct 




i; «"*.■-, 

so^oIfitAD lo 18 .oH 


'^■jiqi;/; Ji; a^uoH 

(aniinitT liO> 
liiioni rV ,rfJl)iv/ : rarioni >5A .JrigisH 

35lUIJJl43a 320(. 




No. 82 of Catalogue 

• The Beach at Etrctat 

(Oil Painting) 
Helfht, sH lnche» ; If nifih. ,V InchM 



au'goIcJcD lo S8 .oVl 

taniJninT liO) 
esriDni >{p .rfJanal ; asriani ifj .IrfsisH 




No. 83 of Catalogue 

A Market in Hungary 

(Oil PalnUne) 
I Iciifhl. <,^ InchM ; tcnirth, <j Incben 



YiEgnuH ni tojIiuM A 

i»fbni p .ilJynst , gathnt Vj 4ifsi»H 


No. 84 of Catalogue 

The Tarpeian Rock, Rome 

(Oil Painttiiff) 
Height. 6ii InchM; lengih, n incbn 





su^olttfiD io i^& .ol^ 

'jmo>l ,>loo5? nnisqicT ariT 

rtilDfii r 1 Signal ; virion! ^'d .JrisioH 

0-jl>i l/IITMAM 


No. 85 of Cttalo^uc 

Breakf:ist in the uid Convent Yard 

(Oil Haintinit) 
MeiKhl, lo^ Inchc* ; Iroirtii. l^^ India 


^' -' :• j-'i V' jpicris-,S'^&»ir-iftv'«(»^^ '^'^i^ x> 




• unif-ifT lo 28 .oVr 

bifcY Jn^vnoj i^lO aril ni Jzcljinaifl 

(gnilnii^M liO) 



No. 86 of Catalogue 

The Snowball 

(Oil I>aintin|) 
Utight, 7« Inchn ; width, 5*^ Inchr 




su^olfitaD io 68 .oVl 

Iltdv/ofi2 uriT 

(aniJnifiS liO) 

2103AM AX OdHAUCm 

■^^/^MAi'ttt^ . 4. 

No. 87 of Catabgxic 

The Woodcutter 

(Water Color) 
HeiRht, 14M Inchcn : wiilih, >■ Incbc* 





■"*' TTITVk.. 


3U^ol£t£3 to T8 .oV[ 

lotJuobooW 'jriT 

nolo',) iMsWj 

esdbni is .rbbiw ; ssdbiri ^>i .irfsisH 

0:)1>1 i4IT?IAM 


No. 8S of Catalogue 

Landscape and ("ows 

(Waier (\iUk) 
Helffht. i.i^ inrhe*: length, j., inthf* 



3U^ol£l£D io &S .oVl 

513aHW OTTO 

No. 89 of CataIo?u« 

Hungarian Peasant Wagon 

(Oil I'ainiinK) 
HciBhl. .oK inchei ; length. ,s% Inches 


iiogEW JfiBZBaR nehE^gnuH 

(gnilniEH liO) 


No. 91 of Catalogue 

Rosa Contadina 

(Water Color) 
HrlKhi, 17S Inchet : irldlb, loM Inchn 


so^o'fitJsD io tP .oVl 





No. 92 of Catalofo« 


fWairr Color) 
Height, I, In. liM : Irnrth. i<, inrhn 


r^lkZ /> 

susoUtiD io £9 .ol^ 


(loluT TjjeW) 
earioni (<i .rilsf'l : sorijni si .JrljisH 

031^1 WITilAM 


No. 93 of CatAlogue 

Remembrance and Regrets 

<Uil PalniiriK) 
Hel|{hi, ,4 lnch«; wMth, il in. he* 



3u^okt£D io e9 .oVl 

j:J'ji§o>l bni; ooritidmorngi! 

(XniJnii-T liO; 

^l/IHV^T^ cih^imja 



No. 94 of Catalogue 

Arab Reclining on a Divjn 

r Water Color) 
Hciijlu. J7V (nche«; wUlih, im inclin 


(>>**l-'S^'^»v *'•■ 

>?cy*^^^^ ._ . ,^ . 




su^ohltD lo ^9 .oVI 

ritiviCl i; no ^ninibo^I deiA 


I •* 

No. 95 of Catalogue 

Cafo Ambulant 

HclKht, 19K Inclic*: Icnctb, mW incbn 





sosoIfitfiD lo 59 .oH 

(iiiiU'irriA 'Ai.. ) 



No. 96 of CatAloguc 


(Oil Painting) 
HelKhi, loK inchn: length, n Incbn 



3uSokt£D lo b9 .oVl 


(snilniEl liO) 






No. 97 of Catalogue 
Death and the Woodman 

(Oil PalntlnR > 
Ilcigtit, >8 Inchn; width, j; m. Iim 



■ I 

ni;mbooW sriJ Loe ritt'jCI 

('jnilwel liO.i 
'iii;ini :c .illtj'rH ; sSfblli Br: .Jltaisll 

No. 98 of Catalogue 

fon Painting) 
Heiifhl, ji Inchm-. width. i«)i Inchn 




sirgokJtD \o 89 .oVl 


(gniJnisT liO) 
fsrtoni iffti .rlibiw .asrioni rs .Jrigisll 



No. 9<> of Catalo^tK 

T IK \\ uuLlcuttcr, Forest u( FoiitJincblea 

(Oil I'ainiiiiKJ 
Hdght, «s^ inchn; width, »tV lnch« 


3u^oIb1£D Jo 99 .oVL 

iji:3ld^jnii.lrio'I lo l^aio'^ .laJtuobooW oriT 

mnrlniiiH liO) 

UA:-122U0>I 3>!OCIOaHT 




No. J 00 of Catabguc 

The Lane 

(Oil PalntlDK) 
Helifht, »i Inches: width, i, inchn 


su^okJiD lo 001 .oVI 

'/fOYOIT THAT?.l^03 



No. J 01 of Catalogue 


Heiifht, ttf^i inchn; length, 14 inche* 



./y..i£....J io ^01 .CVI 


'joDAMAX ou;iAun;'i 

No. 102 of CAtalogu« 

The Miisquerade 

(Walcr Color) 
Height. tjH Inchn: IcnKth. t,>^ Inchc* 


-iv^ohis.D lo £01 .oVl 

YWIJT510-1 OHA151AM 


N la-K 


""«. v<, 


^v^ ^ 

No. J03 of Cataloeuc 

Fortune and the Child 

«»tl Palntlnif) 
Height. ji*i hichn ; widih. tjH Inchn 






tliriJ tifiJ bnn annno'-l 

ilioilfiicT IK)) 
isilani i'fr ,fl)lii« : f3iloni i^sr ,Ji1si»H 

YJIdlJAH ;iMlA ^ 3 Up:) A I. JUAM 

No. 104 of Catalogue 

River Seine, at Bougevui 

(Oil PaintinK) 
HeiKlit, iiii Inchn : width. i8 inilin 

(■,1()\'AK\! I'.( )| hlNl 

3ux)oIf.*£D io W)t .oVI 

l/[|(l.lOH l^fWAVOlO 


No. JOS of Catalogue 

Dead Calm 

(Oil Halntlni!) 
HriKlil, i^Vj InchM; lenijih, <,', intlif, 



susolfilfiD lo 201 .oVl 

rnluD bcsQ 

(aniJnir.M liUI 

?.YA.i:) MA3L JUAM 




No. J 06 of Catabguc 

A Street in Tangiers 

(Water I'oturp 




.ugokJfiD io oOI .oVI. 


i:ii>i:gntT ni j93iJ2 A 
Y^?UT>^0•l OHAl>IAM 



No. 107 of Cataloju* 

Route from Brindisi to B.irletta 

(Oil Palnllnn) 
Hclshl, iiti' Inrhn: Irnicth. >iS Inchr* 



5ugol£jjO io VOr.oVT 

nmhv.H ni iPiibniiS moil oJuoil 

^niinicl liO) 

2ITTI/ 30 3qq32UIO 

r J 

No. JOS of Catalogue 

Plaza and Street. Toledo 

(Oil Palnilnit> 
Hrlghi. (K Inrhn : lrni:!h, !,»; In< hn 





'jo^ohltD lo 801 .oVl 

oboloT ,t99i}2 bnn nscH 
a)l>l '/AJUf-M 


. -♦ 3 

•. .-te! 





No. 109 of Otalottut 
Aveniu- Josephine M.irk.i I',ri< 

I Oil Pjlntli,, 
tIriKhi. '■. Inchc; lenKth. ..t, ..kI,„ 



3u^okuD io 901 .oVI 

u:)IJi H1T51AM 

No. no of C*t*bju« 

The End of a Garni- of C ir.K 

(Oil Pmlniliu 
HHlthi. t^ inchn: wldili, ,i, UuUr, 




No. in of Catalofoc 

Meissonier's I'ortrait 

(Oil PsIntUiKi 
HeiKht. M inchc*: wi.lth. CK-, Inchn 



oogokltD io iU .oVI 

(sniliiicS liO) 


No. 112 of CatAloguc 
The Stirrup Cup 

(Oil Painiinio 
HeiKht. 6^ Inches ; width. 4K iikhn 


^ I 

susoIfilsD io SU .oVI 

qu3 qLmiJ2 ariT 

p»(bni U ,rlJl)iv/ ; ssriDni 'Jlo .IrigioH 

5iniW02?.iaM T23P4^3 ?JUOJ KAat 

/ ^ rod 


No. 113 of Cataloeu* 

Rienzi's House in Rome 

(Oil HainiinKJ 
Meliflu, 6 ln<;h«: IrnKlh, ii inchn 




au^oktiiD io EU .oVI 

'jrrioil ni 92UoH z isriaiyi 

'T i 

No. 114 of Catalogue 

The Choice of a Model 

I oil Patntinii) 
HciKhi, ji iniliM; lenitih, u Inchn 



iu^okJfiD \o i-ii .oVI 

1-jLoM 1. lo -jjiorlD ^rlT 

Yi/riJT51()T OMAI^IAM 




No. 115 of Catalo^tK 

Highway of Combs-la-Villc 

<0\\ Painilnit) 
IlriKhl, J7 inrhr»: Irnctli ,' imhc* 






,..>,., J *- ^n .oVI 

'jlliV-(:l-2fJmo3 lo YfiwdsiH 


No. 116 of Catabguc 

Dead Girl 

(Oil Painiinu) 
Height, iiH inchn ; Irnvth. »7>4 iachc 

MARIANO I"( )|v'ri 'W 


su^goUlxO lo dll .oVl 





No. 117 oJ Catalog'ue 

Cow Among the C:ibb;iKes 

(Oil PalndiiK) 

llfiL'in ' 111. K. ■ . .». •.■.U , , .n, I,,-, 



w^oIlIbD io \1t .oH 

?.9x>i;rJdnD 'jflJ gnomA woD 

(snilniB«l liO) 

/li/fQy'AJ T/iAI>:WO0 


No. 118 of CataloetK 

Village Politicinns 

«>il PainiinK) 
HeJfhl, Y>v, Inchr. ; Imgih. », lochn 



su^oItJtD lo 8U .oVl 

?.nn'rJl\lo1 ogr.IliV 

fanijnir.1 !iO) 




No. n9 of Catalogue 

Thf Antiquary 

lUil I'alntinKi 
Height. 19 Inchc* : length, >6 Incbct 


w^oktfiD \o 9U .oVi 

YifcupiJnA arlT 

(anijni£T liO) 



No. 120 of CatAloguc 
Departure from the M.iskcd Ball 

(Oil l>alniiiiK) 
Hclglii, ,,« inche. . length. ,,, l«h« 






- - '*- '■^- 

3usolx.uD }o on .oV[ 

III a \/,Ayi:hA oiiJ moii aiuJiuqaQ 


No. I2J of Catalogue 


The Arab Butcher 

Oil PalnUnc) 
HciKiii, ,, inchei: length. „ Incbc* 


.u'soUtfiD io ISJ .oVl 

YMUT>!0'^ 014AI^AM 

No. J 22 of Catalogue 

Cows in the Valley. Toiuqucs 

(Oil Pilntlnc) 
Hdtrhl. >4 inrhn ' lrni.Mh. 4.. iiwhn 




/.lUpwoT .i^yllcV 3fll ni ;>7/o3 

(yiiiJnic"J iiO) 
?9ri-)ni "f .rtignof : sitlotii n .frfaisH 






No. 123 of Catalojue 


(Oil Painting) 
Height, 3jS Inchn ; Irngih. y, Inche 


3U-2olsisD }o fS:i -oT'T 

tariijiiit'-l liO) 
i'-if .111 I .ilipnol ;iailt)ni ■>'££ .JflsiaH 

No. J 24 of CitAlogut 

Environs dc Tangir 

<01l Palniini,') 
Hrtiflit. /«i liKhn: Irniflh. )„ In, kn 




■jusolBisD \o ^^\ .oVl 

:ij4ni-.T lib ^rioiivnH 

' unilninH liO ) 
111 .."i ,il!Tin»l :ssfl-jni ■v. jth/nH 


No. 125 of Catalog 


Monkey and Fruit 

• 'il Palntinf) 


3U^ol£j£D lo £Sl .ol^ 

JiuiH bnc v3>lnoM 


No. 126 of Catalogue 

The Huntress 

COil Halniinc) 
HeiKhl. ,« Inihrm; wUili, ,f.< In. !,« 



,;,^..-w io dS:i .oVl 

(aniinii;'l i'OJ 

17 i 

No. 127 of Otoloyu* 


The Alberca Court, Alhambra 

(Oil Halnilnu) 
Height. 4I Inchn; IniKtti, C,, nuhn 




D \o ^S:t .oVI 

udlA t;ffT 

■ ''>IAi;iAM 

No. 128 of CatalojrtM- 

The Pierrette 

(Oil Palniinc) 
Height. 7tK lnche«: width. ,7 Inche* 


O }o 8£1 .oVi 

(pniinicl liO) 
foiioni ^f ,it)blv/ : gsifsnl JJ8^ .Iri^isH ' 

o\A>q(iAM an ogwumya;! 
















«^>^: iv^ 




^ • *y^ 


i X. 

i' ' 


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